Articles | Volume 10, issue 3
Ocean Sci., 10, 281–322, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review article 06 May 2014
Review article | 06 May 2014
Physical forcing and physical/biochemical variability of the Mediterranean Sea: a review of unresolved issues and directions for future research
P. Malanotte-Rizzoli et al.
No articles found.
Irini Tsiodra, Georgios Grivas, Kalliopi Tavernaraki, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Maria Apostolaki, Despina Paraskevopoulou, Alexandra Gogou, Constantine Parinos, Konstantina Oikonomou, Maria Tsagkaraki, Pavlos Zarmpas, Athanasios Nenes, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We analyze observations from year-long measurements at Athens, Greece. Nighttime wintertime PAH levels are four times higher than daytime, and wintertime values are 15 times higher than summertime. Biomass burning aerosol during wintertime pollution events is responsible for these significant wintertime enhancements, and accounts for 43 % of the population exposure to PAH carcinogenic risk. Biomass burning poses additional health risks beyond those associated with high PM levels that develop.
Jaime Hernandez-Lasheras, Baptiste Mourre, Alejandro Orfila, Alex Santana, Emma Reyes, and Joaquín Tintoré
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for OSShort summary
Correct surface ocean circulation forecasts are highly relevant for search and rescue, oil-spill and ecological processes understanding, among others. High Frequency Radars (HFR) is a remote sensing technology that measure surface currents in coastal areas with high temporal and spatial resolution. We performed a series of experiments in which we use HFR observations from the Ibiza Channel to improve the forecasts provided by a Regional ocean model in the Western Mediterranean.
Gerd Krahmann, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Andrew W. Dale, Marcus Dengler, Anja Engel, Nicolaas Glock, Patricia Grasse, Johannes Hahn, Helena Hauss, Mark Hopwood, Rainer Kiko, Alexandra Loginova, Carolin R. Löscher, Marie Maßmig, Alexandra-Sophie Roy, Renato Salvatteci, Stefan Sommer, Toste Tanhua, and Hela Mehrtens
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The project "Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" (SFB 754) was a multidisciplinary research project active from 2008 to 2019 aimed at a better understanding of the coupling between the tropical climate and ocean circulation and the ocean's oxygen and nutrient balance. On 34 research cruises, mainly in the Southeast Tropical Pacific and the Northeast Tropical Atlantic, 1071 physical, chemical and biological data sets were collected.
Pingyang Li and Toste Tanhua
Ocean Sci., 17, 509–525,Short summary
Observations of transient tracer distribution provide essential information on ocean ventilation. The use of several commonly used transient traces is limited as their atmospheric mole fractions do not monotonically change. Here we explore new potential oceanic transient tracers with an analytical system that simultaneously measures a large range of compounds. Combined with the known atmospheric history and seawater solubility, we discuss the utility of selected HCFCs, HFCs, and PFCs as tracers.
Konstantinos Kampouris, Vassilios Vervatis, John Karagiorgos, and Sarantis Sofianos
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for OSShort summary
The wind is a source of uncertainties in oil spill modelling. We performed oil spill ensemble simulations, using an atmospheric ensemble to quantify these uncertainties. We investigate the reliability of oil spill ensemble prediction used as an important forecasting tool to better plan mitigation procedures, in the event of an oil spill.
Mian Liu and Toste Tanhua
Ocean Sci., 17, 463–486,Short summary
We have characterized the major water masses in the Atlantic Ocean based on the properties found in their formation areas using six properties taken from the GLODAPv2 data product, including both conservative (conservative temperature and absolute salinity) and non-conservative (oxygen, silicate, phosphate and nitrate) properties. The distributions of the water masses are estimated by using the optimum multi-parameter (OMP) model, and we have mapped the distributions of the water masses.
Roxane Tzortzis, Andrea M. Doglioli, Stéphanie Barrillon, Anne A. Petrenko, Francesco d'Ovidio, Lloyd Izard, Melilotus Thyssen, Ananda Pascual, Bàrbara Barceló-Llull, Frédéric Cyr, Marc Tedetti, Nagib Bhairy, Pierre Garreau, Franck Dumas, and Gérald Gregori
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
This work analyzes an original high-resolution data set collected in the Mediterranean Sea. The major result is the impact of a fine-scale frontal structure on the distribution of phytoplankton groups, in an area of moderate energy with oligotrophic conditions. Our results provide an in situ confirmation of the findings obtained by previous modeling studies and remote sensing about the structuring effect of the fine-scale ocean dynamics on the structure of the phytoplankton community.
Jaime Pitarch, Marco Bellacicco, Salvatore Marullo, and Hendrik J. van der Woerd
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 481–490,Short summary
Ocean monitoring is crucial to understand the regular seasonality and the drift induced by climate change. Satellites offer a possibility to monitor the complete surface of the Earth within a few days with a harmonized methodology, reaching resolutions of few kilometres. We revisit traditional ship survey optical parameters such as the
Secchi disk depthand the
Forel–Ule indexand derive them from satellite observations. Our time series is 21 years long and has global coverage.
Miroslav Gačić, Laura Ursella, Vedrana Kovačević, Milena Menna, Vlado Malačič, Manuel Bensi, Maria-Eletta Negretti, Vanessa Cardin, Mirko Orlić, Joël Sommeria, Ricardo Viana Barreto, Samuel Viboud, Thomas Valran, Boris Petelin, Giuseppe Siena, and Angelo Rubino
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for OSShort summary
Experiments in the rotating tanks can simulate the earth system and help to represent the real ocean where the rotation plays an important role. We want to show the minor importance of the wind in driving the flow in the Ionian Sea. This we show by observing changes of water current in the rotating tank affected only by pumping of the dense water into the system. The flow variations are alike to what happens in the real sea confirming the scarce importance of the wind for the flow in the Ionian.
Are Olsen, Nico Lange, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, Henry C. Bittig, Alex Kozyr, Marta Álvarez, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott, Susan Becker, Peter J. Brown, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Steven van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Sara Jutterström, Camilla S. Landa, Siv K. Lauvset, Patrick Michaelis, Akihiko Murata, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Bronte Tilbrook, Anton Velo, Rik Wanninkhof, and Ryan J. Woosley
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3653–3678,Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by chemical analysis of water bottle samples at scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2020 is the second update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 946 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2019.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Georg Umgiesser, Marco Bajo, Christian Ferrarin, Andrea Cucco, Piero Lionello, Davide Zanchettin, Alvise Papa, Alessandro Tosoni, Maurizio Ferla, Elisa Coraci, Sara Morucci, Franco Crosato, Andrea Bonometto, Andrea Valentini, Mirko Orlic, Ivan D. Haigh, Jacob Woge Nielsen, Xavier Bertin, André Bustorff Fortunato, Begoña Pérez Gómez, Enrique Alvarez Fanjul, Denis Paradis, Didier Jourdan, Audrey Pasquet, Baptiste Mourre, Joaquín Tintoré, and Robert J. Nicholls
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
The city of Venice relies crucially on a good storm surge forecast to protect its population and cultural heritage. In this paper, we provide a state-of-the-art review in storm surge forecasting, starting from examples in Europe, and focusing on the Adriatic Sea and the Venice Lagoon. We discuss the physics of storm surge, as well as the particular aspects of Venice, and new techniques in storm surge modeling. We also give recommendations on how a future forecasting system should look like.
Piero Lionello, David Barriopedro, Christian Ferrarin, Robert J. Nicholls, Mirko Orlic, Fabio Raicich, Marco Reale, Georg Umgiesser, Michalis Vousdoukas, and Davide Zanchettin
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
This study assesses the factors leading to the extreme water levels at the Venetian littoral that flood and damage a unique world heritage site. Reasons for their observed past increase and very likely future intensification are explained, including the role of relative sea level rise. This analysis shows the importance of compound events and that extreme water levels might be up to 160 % higher at the end of the 21st century than in the recent decades.
Dagmar Hainbucher, Marta Álvarez, Blanca Astray Uceda, Giancarlo Bachi, Vanessa Cardin, Paolo Celentano, Spyros Chaikalis, Maria del Mar Chaves Montero, Giuseppe Civitarese, Noelia M. Fajar, Francois Fripiat, Lennart Gerke, Alexandra Gogou, Elisa F. Guallart, Birte Gülk, Abed El Rahman Hassoun, Nico Lange, Andrea Rochner, Chiara Santinelli, Tobias Steinhoff, Toste Tanhua, Lidia Urbini, Dimitrios Velaoras, Fabian Wolf, and Andreas Welsch
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2747–2763,Short summary
We report on data from an oceanographic cruise in the Mediterranean Sea (MSM72, March 2018). The main objective of the cruise was to contribute to the understanding of long-term changes and trends in physical and biogeochemical parameters, such as the anthropogenic carbon uptake, and further assess the hydrographical situation after the Eastern and Western Mediterranean Transients. Multidisciplinary measurements were conducted on a predominantly zonal section throughout the Mediterranean Sea.
Davide Zanchettin, Sara Bruni, Fabio Raicich, Piero Lionello, Fanny Adloff, Alexey Androsov, Fabrizio Antonioli, Vincenzo Artale, Eugenio Carminati, Christian Ferrarin, Vera Fofonova, Robert J. Nicholls, Sara Rubinetti, Angelo Rubino, Gianmaria Sannino, Giorgio Spada, Rémi Thiéblemont, Michael Tsimplis, Georg Umgiesser, Stefano Vignudelli, Guy Wöppelmann, and Susanna Zerbini
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for NHESSShort summary
Relative sea level in Venice rose by about 2.5 mm/year in the past 150 years due to the combined effect of subsidence and mean sea-level rise. We estimate the likely range of mean sea-level rise in Venice by 2100 due to climate changes in between 11 and 110 cm, with an improbable yet possible high-end scenario of about 170 cm. Projections of subsidence are not available, but historical evidence demonstrates that they can increase the hazard posed by climatically-induced sea-level rise.
Malek Belgacem, Jacopo Chiggiato, Mireno Borghini, Bruno Pavoni, Gabriella Cerrati, Francesco Acri, Stefano Cozzi, Alberto Ribotti, Marta Álvarez, Siv K. Lauvset, and Katrin Schroeder
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1985–2011,Short summary
Long-term time series are a fundamental prerequisite to understanding and detecting climate shifts and trends. In marginal seas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, there are still monitoring gaps. An extensive dataset of dissolved inorganic nutrient profiles were collected between 2004 and 2017 in the western Mediterranean Sea to provide to the scientific community a publicly available, long-term, quality-controlled, internally consistent new database.
Daniel Broullón, Fiz F. Pérez, Antón Velo, Mario Hoppema, Are Olsen, Taro Takahashi, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, J. Magdalena Santana-Casiano, and Alex Kozyr
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1725–1743,Short summary
This work offers a vision of the global ocean regarding the carbon cycle and the implications of ocean acidification through a climatology of a changing variable in the context of climate change: total dissolved inorganic carbon. The climatology was designed through artificial intelligence techniques to represent the mean state of the present ocean. It is very useful to introduce in models to evaluate the state of the ocean from different perspectives.
Natalia Stamataki, Yannis Hatzonikolakis, Kostas Tsiaras, Catherine Tsangaris, George Petihakis, Sarantis Sofianos, and George Triantafyllou
Ocean Sci., 16, 927–949,Short summary
This study examines the accumulation of microplastics on wild and cultured mussels through a dynamic energy budget model, resulting in a comparable contamination level but different cleaning time for the mussels. Our main findings highlight that microplastics contamination is strongly dependent on the variability of specific environmental aspects and improve the knowledge of the transport and accumulation of microplastics in the mussels, enlightening future work on a biomagnification scenario.
Zvjezdana B. Klaić, Karmen Babić, and Mirko Orlić
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3399–3416,Short summary
Fine-resolution lake temperature measurements (2 min, 15 depths) show different lake responses to atmospheric forcings: (1) continuous diurnal oscillations in the temperature in the first 5 m of the lake, (2) occasional diurnal oscillations in the temperature at depths from 7 to 20 m, and (3) occasional surface and internal seiches. Due to the sloped lake bottom, surface seiches produced the high-frequency oscillations in the lake temperatures with periods of 9 min at depths from 9 to 17 m.
Murat Gunduz, Emin Özsoy, and Robinson Hordoir
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 121–138,Short summary
The Bosphorus exchange is of critical importance for hydrodynamics and hydroclimatology of the Black Sea. In this study, we report on the development of a medium-resolution circulation model of the Black Sea, making use of surface atmospheric forcing with high space and time resolution, climatic river fluxes and strait exchange, enabled by adding elementary details of strait and coastal topography and seasonal hydrology specified in an artificial box on the Marmara Sea side.
Are Olsen, Nico Lange, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, Marta Álvarez, Susan Becker, Henry C. Bittig, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Steven van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Steve D. Jones, Sara Jutterström, Maren K. Karlsen, Alex Kozyr, Siv K. Lauvset, Claire Lo Monaco, Akihiko Murata, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Maciej Telszewski, Bronte Tilbrook, Anton Velo, and Rik Wanninkhof
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1437–1461,Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by chemical analysis of water bottle samples at scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2019 is the first update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 840 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2017.
Evan Mason, Simón Ruiz, Romain Bourdalle-Badie, Guillaume Reffray, Marcos García-Sotillo, and Ananda Pascual
Ocean Sci., 15, 1111–1131,Short summary
The Copernicus Marine Service (CMEMS) provides oceanographic products and services. Using a mesoscale eddy tracker, we evaluate the performance of three CMEMS model products in the western Mediterranean. Performance testing provides valuable feedback to the model developers. The eddy tracker allows us to construct 3-D eddy composites for each model in the Alboran Sea gyres. Comparison of the composites with data from Argo floats highlights the importance of data assimilation for these models.
Daniel Broullón, Fiz F. Pérez, Antón Velo, Mario Hoppema, Are Olsen, Taro Takahashi, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, Melchor González-Dávila, Emil Jeansson, Alex Kozyr, and Steven M. A. C. van Heuven
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1109–1127,Short summary
In this work, we are contributing to the knowledge of the consequences of climate change in the ocean. We have focused on a variable related to this process: total alkalinity. We have designed a monthly climatology of total alkalinity using artificial intelligence techniques, that is, a representation of the average capacity of the ocean in the last decades to decelerate the consequences of climate change. The climatology is especially useful to infer the evolution of the ocean through models.
Davide Guerra, Katrin Schroeder, Mireno Borghini, Elisa Camatti, Marco Pansera, Anna Schroeder, Stefania Sparnocchia, and Jacopo Chiggiato
Ocean Sci., 15, 631–649,Short summary
Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a survival strategy adopted by zooplankton that was investigated in the Corsica Channel using acoustic data from April 2014 to November 2016. The principal aim of the study is to characterize migratory patterns and biomass temporal evolution along the water column. In addition, net samples were taken during summer 2015 at the same location. During the investigated period, zooplankton had a well-defined daily and seasonal cycle, with peaks in late winter.
William J. Jenkins, Scott C. Doney, Michaela Fendrock, Rana Fine, Toshitaka Gamo, Philippe Jean-Baptiste, Robert Key, Birgit Klein, John E. Lupton, Robert Newton, Monika Rhein, Wolfgang Roether, Yuji Sano, Reiner Schlitzer, Peter Schlosser, and Jim Swift
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 441–454,Short summary
This paper describes an assembled dataset containing measurements of certain trace substances in the ocean, their distributions, and evolution with time. These substances, called tracers, result from a combination of natural and artificial processes, and their distribution and evolution provide important clues about ocean circulation, mixing, and ventilation. In addition, they give information about the global hydrologic cycle and volcanic and hydrothermal processes.
Vassilios D. Vervatis, Pierre De Mey-Frémaux, Nadia Ayoub, Sarantis Sofianos, Charles-Emmanuel Testut, Marios Kailas, John Karagiorgos, and Malek Ghantous
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Our contributions were specifically targeted at the generation of ensembles, in particular (but not solely) for high-resolution ocean configurations including regional and coastal physics and biogeochemistry. The most important paradigm of this work was to adopt a balanced approach building ocean biogeochemical model ensembles and testing their relevance against observational networks monitoring upper-ocean properties, in the sense of nonzero joint probabilities.
Yuri Cotroneo, Giuseppe Aulicino, Simon Ruiz, Antonio Sánchez Román, Marc Torner Tomàs, Ananda Pascual, Giannetta Fusco, Emma Heslop, Joaquín Tintoré, and Giorgio Budillon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 147–161,Short summary
We present data collected from the first three glider surveys in the Algerian Basin conducted during the ABACUS project. After collection, data passed a quality control procedure and were then made available through an unrestricted repository. The main objective of our project is monitoring the basin circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. Temperature and salinity data collected in the first 975 m of the water column allowed us to identify the main water masses and describe their characteristics.
Charles Troupin, Ananda Pascual, Simon Ruiz, Antonio Olita, Benjamin Casas, Félix Margirier, Pierre-Marie Poulain, Giulio Notarstefano, Marc Torner, Juan Gabriel Fernández, Miquel Àngel Rújula, Cristian Muñoz, Eva Alou, Inmaculada Ruiz, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, John T. Allen, Amala Mahadevan, and Joaquín Tintoré
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 129–145,Short summary
The AlborEX (the Alboran Sea Experiment) consisted of an experiment in the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea) that took place between 25 and 31 May 2014, and use a wide range of oceanographic sensors. The dataset provides information on mesoscale and sub-mesoscale processes taking place in a frontal area. This paper presents the measurements obtained from these sensors and describes their particularities: scale, spatial and temporal resolutions, measured variables, etc.
Mian Liu and Toste Tanhua
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Publication in OS not foreseen
Pingyang Li, Jens Mühle, Stephen A. Montzka, David E. Oram, Benjamin R. Miller, Ray F. Weiss, Paul J. Fraser, and Toste Tanhua
Ocean Sci., 15, 33–60,Short summary
Use of CFCs as oceanic transient tracers is difficult for recently ventilated water masses as their atmospheric mole fractions have been decreasing. To explore novel tracers, we synthesized consistent annual mean atmospheric histories of HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23, PFC-14 (CF4) and PFC-116 in both hemispheres and reconstructed their solubility functions in water and seawater. This work is also potentially useful for tracer studies in a range of natural waters.
Roberta Sciascia, Maristella Berta, Daniel F. Carlson, Annalisa Griffa, Monica Panfili, Mario La Mesa, Lorenzo Corgnati, Carlo Mantovani, Elisa Domenella, Erick Fredj, Marcello G. Magaldi, Raffaele D'Adamo, Gianfranco Pazienza, Enrico Zambianchi, and Pierre-Marie Poulain
Ocean Sci., 14, 1461–1482,Short summary
Understanding the role of ocean currents in the recruitment of commercially important fish is an important step toward developing sustainable resource management guidelines. Here, we attempt to elucidate the role of surface ocean transport in supplying recruits of European sardines to the Gulf of Manfredonia, a known recruitment area in the Adriatic Sea. We find that transport to the Gulf of Manfredonia from remote spawing areas in the Adriatic is more likely than local spawning and retention.
Athanasia Iona, Athanasios Theodorou, Sarantis Sofianos, Sylvain Watelet, Charles Troupin, and Jean-Marie Beckers
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1829–1842,Short summary
The paper introduces a new product composed of a set of climatic indices from 1950 to 2015 for the Mediterranean Sea. It is produced from a high-resolution decadal climatology of temperature and salinity on a 1/8 degree regular grid based on the SeaDataNet V2 historical data collection. The climatic indices can contribute to the studies of the long-term variability of the Mediterranean Sea and the better understanding of the complex response of the region to the ongoing global climate change.
Reiner Onken, Heinz-Volker Fiekas, Laurent Beguery, Ines Borrione, Andreas Funk, Michael Hemming, Jaime Hernandez-Lasheras, Karen J. Heywood, Jan Kaiser, Michaela Knoll, Baptiste Mourre, Paolo Oddo, Pierre-Marie Poulain, Bastien Y. Queste, Aniello Russo, Kiminori Shitashima, Martin Siderius, and Elizabeth Thorp Küsel
Ocean Sci., 14, 321–335,Short summary
In June 2014, high-resolution oceanographic data were collected in the western Mediterranean Sea by two research vessels, 11 gliders, moored instruments, drifters, and one profiling float. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the data set which is utilised by various ongoing studies, focusing on (i) water masses and circulation, (ii) operational forecasting, (iii) data assimilation, (iv) variability of the ocean, and (v) new payloads for gliders.
Ivica Vilibić, Hrvoje Mihanović, Ivica Janeković, Cléa Denamiel, Pierre-Marie Poulain, Mirko Orlić, Natalija Dunić, Vlado Dadić, Mira Pasarić, Stipe Muslim, Riccardo Gerin, Frano Matić, Jadranka Šepić, Elena Mauri, Zoi Kokkini, Martina Tudor, Žarko Kovač, and Tomislav Džoić
Ocean Sci., 14, 237–258,
Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy, Antonio Turiel, and Emilio García-Ladona
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 24, 613–643,Short summary
Ocean currents play a key role in Earth’s climate – they are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea and impact almost all processes that take place in the ocean. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. Here, we review the main techniques used to derive surface currents from satellite measurements and the existing approaches to assimilate this information into ocean models.
Sandro Carniel, Judith Wolf, Vittorio E. Brando, and Lakshmi H. Kantha
Ocean Sci., 13, 495–501,
James C. Orr, Raymond G. Najjar, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, John L. Bullister, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Scott C. Doney, John P. Dunne, Jean-Claude Dutay, Heather Graven, Stephen M. Griffies, Jasmin G. John, Fortunat Joos, Ingeborg Levin, Keith Lindsay, Richard J. Matear, Galen A. McKinley, Anne Mouchet, Andreas Oschlies, Anastasia Romanou, Reiner Schlitzer, Alessandro Tagliabue, Toste Tanhua, and Andrew Yool
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2169–2199,Short summary
The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is a model comparison effort under Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Its physical component is described elsewhere in this special issue. Here we describe its ocean biogeochemical component (OMIP-BGC), detailing simulation protocols and analysis diagnostics. Simulations focus on ocean carbon, other biogeochemical tracers, air-sea exchange of CO2 and related gases, and chemical tracers used to evaluate modeled circulation.
Maher Bouzaiene, Milena Menna, Pierre-Marie Poulain, and Dalila Elhmaidi
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The South Western Mediterranean, connected to the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, is a study area useful to describe the interaction between the light Atlantic Water and the denser Mediterranean Water. The spreading of fluid particles, estimated through the analysis of drifter data, is dominated by large mesoscale eddies at short times and small separation distances, and by small mesoscale structures for scale ranging between 3 and 11 km.
Leif G. Anderson, Göran Björk, Ola Holby, Sara Jutterström, Carl Magnus Mörth, Matt O'Regan, Christof Pearce, Igor Semiletov, Christian Stranne, Tim Stöven, Toste Tanhua, Adam Ulfsbo, and Martin Jakobsson
Ocean Sci., 13, 349–363,Short summary
We use data collected in 2014 to show that the outflow of nutrient-rich water occurs much further to the west than has been reported in the past. We suggest that this is due to much less summer sea-ice coverage in the northwestern East Siberian Sea than in the past decades. Further, our data support a more complicated flow pattern in the region where the Mendeleev Ridge reaches the shelf compared to the general cyclonic circulation within the individual basins as suggested historically.
Antonio Sánchez-Román, Simón Ruiz, Ananda Pascual, Baptiste Mourre, and Stéphanie Guinehut
Ocean Sci., 13, 223–234,Short summary
In this work we investigate the capability of the Argo array in the Mediterranean Sea to capture mesoscale circulation structures (diameter of around 150 km). To do that we conduct several experiments to simulate different spatial sampling configurations of the Argo array in the basin. Results show that the actual Argo array in the Mediterranean (2° × 2°) might be enlarged until a spatial resolution of nearly 75 × 75 km (450 floats) in order to capture the mesoscale signal.
Jesús García-Lafuente, Cristina Naranjo, Simone Sammartino, José C. Sánchez-Garrido, and Javier Delgado
Ocean Sci., 13, 195–207,Short summary
This study shows the influence of the Western Alboran circulation on the composition of the outflow through the Strait of Gibraltar, which is mainly composed by intermediate and Deep Mediterranean Water. While the effect of the gyre in the deep water proportion was already reported, the effect on the intermediate flow has not been addressed yet. The size of the gyre was compared with the characteristic of the outflow in the strait. Results show the intermediate flow benefits from a weak gyre.
Mohamed Ayache, Jean-Claude Dutay, Anne Mouchet, Nadine Tisnérat-Laborde, Paolo Montagna, Toste Tanhua, Giuseppe Siani, and Philippe Jean-Baptiste
Biogeosciences, 14, 1197–1213,Short summary
A high-resolution dynamical model was used to give the first simulation of the distribution of natural and anthropogenic radiocarbon (14C) across the whole Mediterranean Sea. The model correctly simulates the main features of 14C distribution during and after the bomb perturbation. The results demonstrate the major influence of the flux of Atlantic water through the Strait of Gibraltar, and a significant increase in 14C in the Aegean deep water during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient event.
Meike Becker, Nils Andersen, Helmut Erlenkeuser, Matthew P. Humphreys, Toste Tanhua, and Arne Körtzinger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 559–570,Short summary
The stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) can be used to quantify fluxes within the marine carbon system such as the exchange between ocean and atmosphere or the amount of anthropogenic carbon in the water column. In this study, an internally consistent δ13C-DIC dataset for the North Atlantic is presented. The data have undergone a secondary quality control during which systematic biases between the respective cruises have been quantified and adjusted.
Björn Fiedler, Damian S. Grundle, Florian Schütte, Johannes Karstensen, Carolin R. Löscher, Helena Hauss, Hannes Wagner, Alexandra Loginova, Rainer Kiko, Péricles Silva, Toste Tanhua, and Arne Körtzinger
Biogeosciences, 13, 5633–5647,Short summary
Oxygen-depleted mesoscale features in the open eastern tropical North Atlantic, which are formed in the Mauritanian upwelling region, were discovered recently. This study examines biogeochemical structure and magnitudes of related processes within these isolated water masses. We found very low oxygen concentrations and strongly enhanced acidity at near-surface depth. Oxygen utilization and downward carbon export were found to exceed known values for this ocean region.
Simona Aracri, Katrin Schroeder, Jacopo Chiggiato, Harry Bryden, Elaine McDonagh, Simon Josey, Yann Hello, and Mireno Borghini
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The abyssal velocity of the Northern Current, in the north-western Mediterranean has been estimated using for the first time MERMAIDs, i.e. submarine drifting instruments that record seismic waves. In this study the Northern Current shows an intense activity even in deep layers of the water column. Through pseudo-eulerian statistics different components of the observed variability are analysed and described, revealing the turbulent nature of the Liguro-Provençal basin abyssal circulation.
Bàrbara Barceló-Llull, Evan Mason, Arthur Capet, and Ananda Pascual
Ocean Sci., 12, 1003–1011,Short summary
Vertical velocity in the ocean makes an important contribution to the modulation of marine ecosystems through its impact on fluxes of nutrients and phytoplankton. Here, we estimate full 3-D current velocity fields from an observation-based data product. The 3-D currents are used to force a set of particle-tracking (Lagrangian) experiments. The Lagrangian results show that vertical motions induce local increases in nitrate uptake reaching up to 30 %.
Davide Zanchettin, Myriam Khodri, Claudia Timmreck, Matthew Toohey, Anja Schmidt, Edwin P. Gerber, Gabriele Hegerl, Alan Robock, Francesco S. R. Pausata, William T. Ball, Susanne E. Bauer, Slimane Bekki, Sandip S. Dhomse, Allegra N. LeGrande, Graham W. Mann, Lauren Marshall, Michael Mills, Marion Marchand, Ulrike Niemeier, Virginie Poulain, Eugene Rozanov, Angelo Rubino, Andrea Stenke, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Fiona Tummon
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2701–2719,Short summary
Simulating volcanically-forced climate variability is a challenging task for climate models. The Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to volcanic forcing (VolMIP) – an endorsed contribution to CMIP6 – defines a protocol for idealized volcanic-perturbation experiments to improve comparability of results across different climate models. This paper illustrates the design of VolMIP's experiments and describes the aerosol forcing input datasets to be used.
Are Olsen, Robert M. Key, Steven van Heuven, Siv K. Lauvset, Anton Velo, Xiaohua Lin, Carsten Schirnick, Alex Kozyr, Toste Tanhua, Mario Hoppema, Sara Jutterström, Reiner Steinfeldt, Emil Jeansson, Masao Ishii, Fiz F. Pérez, and Toru Suzuki
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 297–323,Short summary
The GLODAPv2 data product collects data from more than 700 hydrographic cruises into a global and internally calibrated product. It provides access to the data from almost all ocean carbon cruises carried out since the 1970s and is a unique resource for marine science, in particular regarding the ocean carbon cycle. GLODAPv2 will form the foundation for future routine synthesis of hydrographic data of the same sort.
Siv K. Lauvset, Robert M. Key, Are Olsen, Steven van Heuven, Anton Velo, Xiaohua Lin, Carsten Schirnick, Alex Kozyr, Toste Tanhua, Mario Hoppema, Sara Jutterström, Reiner Steinfeldt, Emil Jeansson, Masao Ishii, Fiz F. Perez, Toru Suzuki, and Sylvain Watelet
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 325–340,Short summary
This paper describes the mapped climatologies that are part of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project Version 2 (GLODAPv2). GLODAPv2 is a uniformly calibrated open ocean data product on inorganic carbon and carbon-relevant variables. Global mapped climatologies of the total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, saturation state of calcite and aragonite, anthropogenic carbon, preindustrial carbon content, inorganic macronutrients, oxygen, salinity, and temperature have been created.
Jun She, Icarus Allen, Erik Buch, Alessandro Crise, Johnny A. Johannessen, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Urmas Lips, Glenn Nolan, Nadia Pinardi, Jan H. Reißmann, John Siddorn, Emil Stanev, and Henning Wehde
Ocean Sci., 12, 953–976,Short summary
This white paper addresses key scientific challenges and research priorities for the development of operational oceanography in Europe for the next 5–10 years. Knowledge gaps and deficiencies are identified in relation to common scientific challenges in four EuroGOOS knowledge areas: European ocean observations, modelling and forecasting technology, coastal operational oceanography, and operational ecology.
Renata Archetti, Agnese Paci, Sandro Carniel, and Davide Bonaldo
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1107–1122,Short summary
An application to monitor the response of a beach to single storms, in order to predict shoreline changes and to plan the defence of the shore zone is presented. On the study area, Jesolo (Italy), video and current stations were installed. The methodology, which is economically attractive, proves to be a valuable system for providing detailed indications on beach erosion processes and can be used for improving the collaboration between coastal scientists and managers to solve beach-maintenance problems.
Marcos García Sotillo, Emilio Garcia-Ladona, Alejandro Orfila, Pablo Rodríguez-Rubio, José Cristobal Maraver, Daniel Conti, Elena Padorno, José Antonio Jiménez, Este Capó, Fernando Pérez, Juan Manuel Sayol, Francisco Javier de los Santos, Arancha Amo, Ana Rietz, Charles Troupin, Joaquín Tintore, and Enrique Álvarez-Fanjul
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 141–149,Short summary
An intensive drifter deployment was carried out in the Strait of Gibraltar: 35 satellite tracked drifters were released, coordinating to this aim 4 boats, covering an area of about 680 NM2 in 6 hours. This MEDESS-GIB Experiment is the most important exercise in the Mediterranean in terms of number of drifters released. The MEDESS-GIB dataset provides a complete Lagrangian view of the surface inflow of Atlantic waters through the Strait of Gibraltar and its later evolution along the Alboran Sea.
Francesco Marcello Falcieri, Lakshmi Kantha, Alvise Benetazzo, Andrea Bergamasco, Davide Bonaldo, Francesco Barbariol, Vlado Malačič, Mauro Sclavo, and Sandro Carniel
Ocean Sci., 12, 433–449,Short summary
Between January 30th and February 4th we collected the first turbulence observations in the Gulf of Trieste under different wind forcing and water column structure. The vertical profiles of the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rates showed that the presence near the sea floor of different water masses, inflowing from the open sea, can prevent the complete mixing of the water column. This dumping effect is enhanced when these masses present higher suspended sediment concentrations.
Francesco Barbariol, Francesco Marcello Falcieri, Carlotta Scotton, Alvise Benetazzo, Sandro Carniel, and Mauro Sclavo
Ocean Sci., 12, 403–415,Short summary
The analysis presented in the paper aims at extending the classification capabilities of Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) within the context of ocean waves. Indeed, the intrinsic SOM difficulty in representing extremes of the wave climate is discussed and alternative strategies are proposed in order to represent the whole wave climate at a given location. Among them, a two-step SOM together with a double-side map provides the best results.
Tim Stöven, Toste Tanhua, Mario Hoppema, and Wilken-Jon von Appen
Ocean Sci., 12, 319–333,Short summary
The article describes transient tracer distributions of CFC-12 and SF6 in the Fram Strait in 2012. The SF6 excess and the anthropogenic carbon content in this area was estimated assuming a standard parameterization of the inverse-Gaussian–transit-time distribution. Hydrographic data were obtained along a mooring array at 78°50’N and a mean velocity field was used for flux estimates.
L. Shabrang, M. Menna, C. Pizzi, H. Lavigne, G. Civitarese, and M. Gačić
Ocean Sci., 12, 233–241,Short summary
The interannual variation of the strength of the SAG in relation to NAO was studied. The intensity of the gyre is associated with the large-scale climatic variations via the wind-stress curl forcing. However due to the rather important contribution of the vorticity advection from the Ionian, which is more significant during the anticyclonic BiOS, there is no clear evidence of a direct effect of large-scale atmospheric circulation (NAO) on the interannual variability of the intensity of the SAG.
L. Stramma, R. Czeschel, T. Tanhua, P. Brandt, M. Visbeck, and B. S. Giese
Ocean Sci., 12, 153–167,Short summary
The subsurface circulation in the eastern tropical North Atlantic OMZ is derived from velocity, float and tracer data and data assimilation results, and shows a cyclonic flow around the Guinea Dome reaching into the oxygen minimum zone. The stronger cyclonic flow around the Guinea Dome in 2009 seem to be connected to a strong Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) event. A continuous deoxygenation trend of the low oxygen layer was confirmed. Eddy influence is weak south of the Cape Verde Islands.
S. Walter, A. Kock, T. Steinhoff, B. Fiedler, P. Fietzek, J. Kaiser, M. Krol, M. E. Popa, Q. Chen, T. Tanhua, and T. Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 13, 323–340,Short summary
Oceans are a source of H2, an indirect greenhouse gas. Measurements constraining the temporal and spatial patterns of oceanic H2 emissions are sparse and although H2 is assumed to be produced mainly biologically, direct evidence for biogenic marine production was lacking. By analyzing the H2 isotopic composition (δD) we were able to constrain the global H2 budget in more detail, verify biogenic production and point to additional sources. We also showed that current models are reasonably working.
M. Ličer, P. Smerkol, A. Fettich, M. Ravdas, A. Papapostolou, A. Mantziafou, B. Strajnar, J. Cedilnik, M. Jeromel, J. Jerman, S. Petan, V. Malačič, and S. Sofianos
Ocean Sci., 12, 71–86,Short summary
We compare the northern Adriatic response to an extreme bora event, as simulated by one-way and two-way (i.e. with ocean feedback to the atmosphere) atmosphere-ocean coupling. We show that two-way coupling yields significantly better estimates of heat fluxes, most notably sensible heat flux, across the air-sea interface. When compared to observations in the northern Adriatic, two-way coupled system consequently leads to a better representation of ocean temperatures throughout the event.
R. Pedrosa-Pàmies, C. Parinos, A. Sanchez-Vidal, A. Gogou, A. Calafat, M. Canals, I. Bouloubassi, and N. Lampadariou
Biogeosciences, 12, 7379–7402,Short summary
A multi-proxy approach is applied in surface sediments collected from deep slopes and basins (1018-4087 m depth) of the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean Sea. This study sheds new light on the sources and transport mechanisms along with the impact of preservation vs. diagenetic processes on the composition of sedimentary organic matter in the deep basins of the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean Sea.
V. E. Brando, F. Braga, L. Zaggia, C. Giardino, M. Bresciani, E. Matta, D. Bellafiore, C. Ferrarin, F. Maicu, A. Benetazzo, D. Bonaldo, F. M. Falcieri, A. Coluccelli, A. Russo, and S. Carniel
Ocean Sci., 11, 909–920,Short summary
Sea surface temperature and turbidity, derived from satellite imagery, were used to characterize river plumes in the northern Adriatic Sea during a significant flood event in November 2014. Circulation patterns and sea surface salinity, from an operational coupled ocean-wave model, supported the interpretation of the plumes' interaction with the receiving waters and among them.
M. Sammartino, A. Di Cicco, S. Marullo, and R. Santoleri
Ocean Sci., 11, 759–778,Short summary
We describe the seasonal and year-to-year variability of the spatial distribution of the phytoplankton size classes (PSCs) in the Mediterranean Sea using the time series of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observations (1998 to 2010). We used a chlorophyll-a-based model to estimate the phytoplankton composition. Our results, based on ocean colour data, confirm the seasonal and inter-annual pattern of the phytoplankton community observed from in situ data and in previous studies.
T. Stöven, T. Tanhua, M. Hoppema, and J. L. Bullister
Ocean Sci., 11, 699–718,Short summary
We use a suite of transient tracer measurements from a Southern Ocean sector southeast of Africa collected from 1998 and 2012 to quantify ventilation and change in ventilation. We found that the ventilation can be constrained by an inverse Gaussian transit time distribution north of the Subantarctic Front. We do not find any significant changes in upper ocean ventilation during this time period.
D. Hainbucher, V. Cardin, G. Siena, U. Hübner, M. Moritz, U. Drübbisch, and F. Basan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 231–237,Short summary
We report on data from an oceanographic cruise in the Mediterranean in April 2014. Data were taken on a west-east section starting at the Strait of Gibraltar and ending south-east of Crete, as well on sections in the Ionian and Adriatic Sea. The measurements include salinity, temperature, oxygen and currents. We study the mesoscale eddy field and support long-term investigations of the hydrography in the Mediterranean Sea.
H. Lavigne, F. D'Ortenzio, M. Ribera D'Alcalà, H. Claustre, R. Sauzède, and M. Gacic
Biogeosciences, 12, 5021–5039,Short summary
The spatiotemporal variability in the vertical distribution of the chlorophyll concentration in the Mediterranean Sea is investigated. Results are based on a large database of fluorescence profiles intercalibrated from ocean color satellite data. They indicate that two types of chlorophyll seasonality coexist in the Mediterranean Sea. The shape of the chlorophyll profile is very dynamic during winter, and the deep chlorophyll maximum is a dominant feature of Mediterranean chlorophyll profile.
M. Ayache, J.-C. Dutay, P. Jean-Baptiste, K. Beranger, T. Arsouze, J. Beuvier, J. Palmieri, B. Le-vu, and W. Roether
Ocean Sci., 11, 323–342,Short summary
The anthropogenic tritium invasion, and its decay product helium-3, was simulated for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, using a high-resolution regional model (NEMO-MED12). The simulation covers the entire tritium (3H) transient generated by the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s and run until 2011. The model correctly simulates the main features of the thermohaline circulation in the Mediterranean Sea, with a realistic time compared to observations.
P. Brandt, H. W. Bange, D. Banyte, M. Dengler, S.-H. Didwischus, T. Fischer, R. J. Greatbatch, J. Hahn, T. Kanzow, J. Karstensen, A. Körtzinger, G. Krahmann, S. Schmidtko, L. Stramma, T. Tanhua, and M. Visbeck
Biogeosciences, 12, 489–512,Short summary
Our observational study looks at the structure of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in comparison with the less-ventilated, eastern tropical South Pacific OMZ. We quantify the OMZ’s oxygen budget composed of consumption, advection, lateral and vertical mixing. Substantial oxygen variability is observed on interannual to multidecadal timescales. The deoxygenation of the ETNA OMZ during the last decades represents a substantial imbalance of the oxygen budget.
A. Oviedo, P. Ziveri, M. Álvarez, and T. Tanhua
Ocean Sci., 11, 13–32,
V. Cardin, G. Civitarese, D. Hainbucher, M. Bensi, and A. Rubino
Ocean Sci., 11, 53–66,Short summary
The results of this study reveal that the thermohaline properties in the study area in 2011 lie between the thermohaline characteristics of the EMT and those of the pre-EMT phase, indicating a possible slow return towards the latter. It highlights the relationship between the hydrological property distribution of the upper layer in the Levantine basin and the alternate circulation regimes in the Ionian, which modulates the salinity distribution in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
M. Lipizer, E. Partescano, A. Rabitti, A. Giorgetti, and A. Crise
Ocean Sci., 10, 771–797,
M.-H. Rio, A. Pascual, P.-M. Poulain, M. Menna, B. Barceló, and J. Tintoré
Ocean Sci., 10, 731–744,
M. D. Krom, N. Kress, and K. Fanning
Biogeosciences, 11, 4211–4223,
M. Borghini, H. Bryden, K. Schroeder, S. Sparnocchia, and A. Vetrano
Ocean Sci., 10, 693–700,
D. Hainbucher, A. Rubino, V. Cardin, T. Tanhua, K. Schroeder, and M. Bensi
Ocean Sci., 10, 669–682,
A. Olita, S. Sparnocchia, S. Cusí, L. Fazioli, R. Sorgente, J. Tintoré, and A. Ribotti
Ocean Sci., 10, 657–666,
M. Gačić, G. Civitarese, V. Kovačević, L. Ursella, M. Bensi, M. Menna, V. Cardin, P.-M. Poulain, S. Cosoli, G. Notarstefano, and C. Pizzi
Ocean Sci., 10, 513–522,
M. Gunduz and E. Özsoy
Ocean Sci., 10, 459–471,
T. Stöven and T. Tanhua
Ocean Sci., 10, 439–457,
M. Menna and P.-M. Poulain
Ocean Sci., 10, 155–165,
M. Álvarez, H. Sanleón-Bartolomé, T. Tanhua, L. Mintrop, A. Luchetta, C. Cantoni, K. Schroeder, and G. Civitarese
Ocean Sci., 10, 69–92,
A. Schneider, T. Tanhua, W. Roether, and R. Steinfeldt
Ocean Sci., 10, 1–16,
S. Stavrakakis, A. Gogou, E. Krasakopoulou, A. P. Karageorgis, H. Kontoyiannis, G. Rousakis, D. Velaoras, L. Perivoliotis, G. Kambouri, I. Stavrakaki, and V. Lykousis
Biogeosciences, 10, 7235–7254,
W. Roether, P. Jean-Baptiste, E. Fourré, and J. Sültenfuß
Ocean Sci., 9, 837–854,
C. Parinos, A. Gogou, I. Bouloubassi, R. Pedrosa-Pàmies, I. Hatzianestis, A. Sanchez-Vidal, G. Rousakis, D. Velaoras, G. Krokos, and V. Lykousis
Biogeosciences, 10, 6069–6089,
N. Preto, C. Agnini, M. Rigo, M. Sprovieri, and H. Westphal
Biogeosciences, 10, 6053–6068,
F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Abrahamsson, S. D. Archer, E. Atlas, T. Bell, J. H. Butler, L. J. Carpenter, C. E. Jones, N. R. P. Harris, H. Hepach, K. G. Heumann, C. Hughes, J. Kuss, K. Krüger, P. Liss, R. M. Moore, A. Orlikowska, S. Raimund, C. E. Reeves, W. Reifenhäuser, A. D. Robinson, C. Schall, T. Tanhua, S. Tegtmeier, S. Turner, L. Wang, D. Wallace, J. Williams, H. Yamamoto, S. Yvon-Lewis, and Y. Yokouchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8915–8934,
T. Tanhua, D. Hainbucher, K. Schroeder, V. Cardin, M. Álvarez, and G. Civitarese
Ocean Sci., 9, 789–803,
P.-M. Poulain and S. Hariri
Ocean Sci., 9, 713–720,
T. Tanhua, D. Hainbucher, V. Cardin, M. Álvarez, G. Civitarese, A. P. McNichol, and R. M. Key
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 289–294,
T. Fischer, D. Banyte, P. Brandt, M. Dengler, G. Krahmann, T. Tanhua, and M. Visbeck
Biogeosciences, 10, 5079–5093,
F. Mapelli, M. M. Varela, M. Barbato, R. Alvariño, M. Fusi, M. Álvarez, G. Merlino, D. Daffonchio, and S. Borin
Ocean Sci., 9, 585–595,
C. Theodosi, C. Parinos, A. Gogou, A. Kokotos, S. Stavrakakis, V. Lykousis, J. Hatzianestis, and N. Mihalopoulos
Biogeosciences, 10, 4449–4464,
H. Mihanović, I. Vilibić, S. Carniel, M. Tudor, A. Russo, A. Bergamasco, N. Bubić, Z. Ljubešić, D. Viličić, A. Boldrin, V. Malačič, M. Celio, C. Comici, and F. Raicich
Ocean Sci., 9, 561–572,
S. Efrati, Y. Lehahn, E. Rahav, N. Kress, B. Herut, I. Gertman, R. Goldman, T. Ozer, M. Lazar, and E. Heifetz
Biogeosciences, 10, 3349–3357,
S. Khatiwala, T. Tanhua, S. Mikaloff Fletcher, M. Gerber, S. C. Doney, H. D. Graven, N. Gruber, G. A. McKinley, A. Murata, A. F. Ríos, and C. L. Sabine
Biogeosciences, 10, 2169–2191,
M. Gačić, K. Schroeder, G. Civitarese, S. Cosoli, A. Vetrano, and G. L. Eusebi Borzelli
Ocean Sci., 9, 83–90,
Related subject area
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