Articles | Volume 11, issue 5
Ocean Sci., 11, 699–718, 2015
Ocean Sci., 11, 699–718, 2015

Research article 18 Sep 2015

Research article | 18 Sep 2015

Perspectives of transient tracer applications and limiting cases

T. Stöven1, T. Tanhua1, M. Hoppema2, and J. L. Bullister3 T. Stöven et al.
  • 1Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany
  • 2Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany
  • 3National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA

Abstract. Currently available transient tracers have different application ranges that are defined by their temporal input (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). Transient tracers range from tracers for highly ventilated water masses such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) through tritium (3H) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) up to tracers for less ventilated deep ocean basins such as argon-39 (39Ar) and radiocarbon (14C). In this context, highly ventilated water masses are defined as water masses that have been in contact with the atmosphere during the last decade. Transient tracers can be used to empirically constrain the transit time distribution (TTD), which can often be approximated with an inverse Gaussian (IG) distribution. The IG-TTD provides information about ventilation and the advective/diffusive characteristics of a water parcel.

Here we provide an overview of commonly used transient tracer couples and the corresponding application range of the IG-TTD by using the new concept of validity areas. CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 data from three different cruises in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean as well as 39Ar data from the 1980s and early 1990s in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Weddell Sea are used to demonstrate this method. We found that the IG-TTD can be constrained along the Greenwich Meridian south to 46° S, which corresponds to the Subantarctic Front (SAF) denoting the application limit. The Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) describes the limiting water layer in the vertical. Conspicuous high or lower ratios between the advective and diffusive components describe the transition between the validity area and the application limit of the IG-TTD model rather than describing the physical properties of the water parcel. The combination of 39Ar and CFC data places constraints on the IG-TTD in the deep water north of the SAF, but not beyond this limit.

Short summary
We use a suite of transient tracer measurements from a Southern Ocean sector southeast of Africa collected from 1998 and 2012 to quantify ventilation and change in ventilation. We found that the ventilation can be constrained by an inverse Gaussian transit time distribution north of the Subantarctic Front. We do not find any significant changes in upper ocean ventilation during this time period.