Articles | Volume 17, issue 1
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Seasonal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 11° S inferred from bottom pressure measurements
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
Kiel University, Kiel, Germany
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
Department of Oceanography, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
Jonathan V. Durgadoo
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
Kiel University, Kiel, Germany
No articles found.
Kristin Burmeister, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Willi Rath, Arne Biastoch, Peter Brandt, Joke F. Lübbecke, and Mark Inall
To investigate the impact of different wind forcings on the simulated upper current field in the tropical Atlantic, we applied two different forcing products to an high resolution ocean model. Where possible, we used long-term velocity observations to test the quality of the model simulation. We found largest differences between the wind forcings north of the Equator. Sverdrup dynamics can explain the differences between the model simulations to a large extent.
Swantje Bastin, Martin Claus, Richard J. Greatbatch, and Peter Brandt
Ocean Sci., 19, 923–939,Short summary
Equatorial deep jets are ocean currents that flow along the Equator in the deep oceans. They are relevant for oxygen transport and tropical surface climate, but their dynamics are not yet entirely understood. We investigate different factors leading to the jets being broader than theory predicts. Mainly using an ocean model, but corroborating the results with shipboard observations, we show that loss of momentum is the main factor for the broadening but that meandering also contributes.
Peter Brandt, Gaël Alory, Founi Mesmin Awo, Marcus Dengler, Sandrine Djakouré, Rodrigue Anicet Imbol Koungue, Julien Jouanno, Mareike Körner, Marisa Roch, and Mathieu Rouault
Ocean Sci., 19, 581–601,Short summary
Tropical upwelling systems are among the most productive ecosystems globally. The tropical Atlantic upwelling undergoes a strong seasonal cycle that is forced by the wind. Local wind-driven upwelling and remote effects, particularly via the propagation of equatorial and coastal trapped waves, lead to an upward and downward movement of the nitracline. Turbulent mixing results in upward supply of nutrients. Here, we review the different physical processes responsible for biological productivity.
Lukrecia Štulić, Ralph Timmermann, Stephan Paul, Rolf Zentek, Günther Heinemann, and Torsten Kanzow
In the southern Weddell Sea, the strong sea-ice growth in coastal polynyas drives formation of dense shelf water. By using a sea ice-ice shelf-ocean model with representation of the changing icescape based on the satellite data, we find that polynya sea-ice growth depends on both the regional atmospheric forcing and the icescape. Location and not only strength of the sea-ice growth in polynyas affect properties of the dense shelf water and the basal melting of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf.
Djoirka Minto Dimoune, Florence Birol, Fabrice Hernandez, Fabien Léger, and Moacyr Araujo
Ocean Sci., 19, 251–268,Short summary
Altimeter-derived currents are used here to revisit the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface currents involved in the western tropical Atlantic circulation. A new approach based on the calculation of the current strengths and core positions is used to investigate the relationship between the currents, the remote wind variability, and the tropical Atlantic modes. The results show relationships at the seasonal and interannual timescale depending on the location of the currents.
Mareike Körner, Peter Brandt, and Marcus Dengler
Ocean Sci., 19, 121–139,Short summary
The coastal waters off Angola host a productive ecosystem. Surface waters at the coast are colder than further offshore. We find that surface heat fluxes warm the coastal region more strongly than the offshore region and cannot explain the differences. The influence of horizontal heat advection is minor on the surface temperature change. In contrast, ocean turbulence data suggest that cooling associated with vertical mixing is an important mechanism to explain the near-coastal cooling.
Francesca Doglioni, Robert Ricker, Benjamin Rabe, Alexander Barth, Charles Troupin, and Torsten Kanzow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 225–263,Short summary
This paper presents a new satellite-derived gridded dataset, including 10 years of sea surface height and geostrophic velocity at monthly resolution, over the Arctic ice-covered and ice-free regions, up to 88° N. We assess the dataset by comparison to independent satellite and mooring data. Results correlate well with independent satellite data at monthly timescales, and the geostrophic velocity fields can resolve seasonal to interannual variability of boundary currents wider than about 50 km.
Rainer Kiko, Marc Picheral, David Antoine, Marcel Babin, Léo Berline, Tristan Biard, Emmanuel Boss, Peter Brandt, Francois Carlotti, Svenja Christiansen, Laurent Coppola, Leandro de la Cruz, Emilie Diamond-Riquier, Xavier Durrieu de Madron, Amanda Elineau, Gabriel Gorsky, Lionel Guidi, Helena Hauss, Jean-Olivier Irisson, Lee Karp-Boss, Johannes Karstensen, Dong-gyun Kim, Rachel M. Lekanoff, Fabien Lombard, Rubens M. Lopes, Claudie Marec, Andrew M. P. McDonnell, Daniela Niemeyer, Margaux Noyon, Stephanie H. O'Daly, Mark D. Ohman, Jessica L. Pretty, Andreas Rogge, Sarah Searson, Masashi Shibata, Yuji Tanaka, Toste Tanhua, Jan Taucher, Emilia Trudnowska, Jessica S. Turner, Anya Waite, and Lars Stemmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4315–4337,Short summary
marine particlescomprises detrital aggregates; fecal pellets; bacterioplankton, phytoplankton and zooplankton; and even fish. Here, we present a global dataset that contains 8805 vertical particle size distribution profiles obtained with Underwater Vision Profiler 5 (UVP5) camera systems. These data are valuable to the scientific community, as they can be used to constrain important biogeochemical processes in the ocean, such as the flux of carbon to the deep sea.
Gilles Reverdin, Claire Waelbroeck, Catherine Pierre, Camille Akhoudas, Giovanni Aloisi, Marion Benetti, Bernard Bourlès, Magnus Danielsen, Jérôme Demange, Denis Diverrès, Jean-Claude Gascard, Marie-Noëlle Houssais, Hervé Le Goff, Pascale Lherminier, Claire Lo Monaco, Herlé Mercier, Nicolas Metzl, Simon Morisset, Aïcha Naamar, Thierry Reynaud, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, Virginie Thierry, Susan E. Hartman, Edward W. Mawji, Solveig Olafsdottir, Torsten Kanzow, Anton Velo, Antje Voelker, Igor Yashayaev, F. Alexander Haumann, Melanie J. Leng, Carol Arrowsmith, and Michael Meredith
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2721–2735,Short summary
The CISE-LOCEAN seawater stable isotope dataset has close to 8000 data entries. The δ18O and δD isotopic data measured at LOCEAN have uncertainties of at most 0.05 ‰ and 0.25 ‰, respectively. Some data were adjusted to correct for evaporation. The internal consistency indicates that the data can be used to investigate time and space variability to within 0.03 ‰ and 0.15 ‰ in δ18O–δD17; comparisons with data analyzed in other institutions suggest larger differences with other datasets.
Arne Biastoch, Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Klaus Getzlaff, Siren Rühs, Torge Martin, Markus Scheinert, Tobias Schulzki, Patricia Handmann, Rebecca Hummels, and Claus W. Böning
Ocean Sci., 17, 1177–1211,Short summary
The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) quantifies the impact of the ocean on climate and climate change. Here we show that a high-resolution ocean model is able to realistically simulate ocean currents. While the mean representation of the AMOC depends on choices made for the model and on the atmospheric forcing, the temporal variability is quite robust. Comparing the ocean model with ocean observations, we able to identify that the AMOC has declined over the past two decades.
Francesca Doglioni, Robert Ricker, Benjamin Rabe, and Torsten Kanzow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
This paper presents a new satellite-derived gridded dataset of sea surface height and geostrophic velocity, over the Arctic ice-covered and ice-free regions up to 88° N. The dataset includes velocities north of 82° N, which were not available before. We assess the dataset by comparison to one independent satellite dataset and to independent mooring data. Results show that the geostrophic velocity fields can resolve seasonal to interannual variability of boundary currents wider than about 50 km.
Josefine Maas, Susann Tegtmeier, Yue Jia, Birgit Quack, Jonathan V. Durgadoo, and Arne Biastoch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4103–4121,Short summary
Cooling-water disinfection at coastal power plants is a known source of atmospheric bromoform. A large source of anthropogenic bromoform is the industrial regions in East Asia. In current bottom-up flux estimates, these anthropogenic emissions are missing, underestimating the global air–sea flux of bromoform. With transport simulations, we show that by including anthropogenic bromoform from cooling-water treatment, the bottom-up flux estimates significantly improve in East and Southeast Asia.
Franziska U. Schwarzkopf, Arne Biastoch, Claus W. Böning, Jérôme Chanut, Jonathan V. Durgadoo, Klaus Getzlaff, Jan Harlaß, Jan K. Rieck, Christina Roth, Markus M. Scheinert, and René Schubert
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3329–3355,Short summary
A family of nested global ocean general circulation model configurations, the INALT family, has been established with resolutions of 1/10°, 1/20° and 1/60° in the South Atlantic and western Indian oceans, covering the greater Agulhas Current (AC) system. The INALT family provides a consistent set of configurations that allows to address eddy dynamics in the AC system and their impact on the large-scale ocean circulation.
Josefine Maas, Susann Tegtmeier, Birgit Quack, Arne Biastoch, Jonathan V. Durgadoo, Siren Rühs, Stephan Gollasch, and Matej David
Ocean Sci., 15, 891–904,Short summary
In a large-scale analysis, the spread of disinfection by-products from oxidative ballast water treatment is investigated, with a focus on Southeast Asia where major ports are located. Halogenated compounds such as bromoform (CHBr3) are produced in the ballast water and, once emitted into the environment, can participate in ozone depletion. Anthropogenic bromoform is rapidly emitted into the atmosphere and can locally double around large ports. A large-scale impact cannot be found.
Tim Fischer, Annette Kock, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Marcus Dengler, Peter Brandt, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 16, 2307–2328,Short summary
We investigated air–sea gas exchange in oceanic upwelling regions for the case of nitrous oxide off Peru. In this region, routine concentration measurements from ships at 5 m or 10 m depth prove to overestimate surface (bulk) concentration. Thus, standard estimates of gas exchange will show systematic error. This is due to very shallow stratified layers that inhibit exchange between surface water and waters below and can exist for several days. Maximum bias occurs in moderate wind conditions.
Yao Fu, Johannes Karstensen, and Peter Brandt
Ocean Sci., 14, 589–616,Short summary
Hydrographic analysis in the Atlantic along 14.5° N and 24.5° N shows that between the periods of 1989/92 and 2013/15, the Antarctic Intermediate Water became warmer and saltier at 14.5° N, and that the Antarctic Bottom Water became lighter at both latitudes. By applying a box inverse model, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) was determined. Comparison among the inverse solution, GECCO2, RAPID, and MOVE shows that the AMOC has not significantly changed in the past 20 years.
Fabrice Ardhuin, Yevgueny Aksenov, Alvise Benetazzo, Laurent Bertino, Peter Brandt, Eric Caubet, Bertrand Chapron, Fabrice Collard, Sophie Cravatte, Jean-Marc Delouis, Frederic Dias, Gérald Dibarboure, Lucile Gaultier, Johnny Johannessen, Anton Korosov, Georgy Manucharyan, Dimitris Menemenlis, Melisa Menendez, Goulven Monnier, Alexis Mouche, Frédéric Nouguier, George Nurser, Pierre Rampal, Ad Reniers, Ernesto Rodriguez, Justin Stopa, Céline Tison, Clément Ubelmann, Erik van Sebille, and Jiping Xie
Ocean Sci., 14, 337–354,Short summary
The Sea surface KInematics Multiscale (SKIM) monitoring mission is a proposal for a future satellite that is designed to measure ocean currents and waves. Using a Doppler radar, the accurate measurement of currents requires the removal of the mean velocity due to ocean wave motions. This paper describes the main processing steps needed to produce currents and wave data from the radar measurements. With this technique, SKIM can provide unprecedented coverage and resolution, over the global ocean.
Eike E. Köhn, Sören Thomsen, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, and Torsten Kanzow
Ocean Sci., 13, 1017–1033,
Sandrine Djakouré, Moacyr Araujo, Aubains Hounsou-Gbo, Carlos Noriega, and Bernard Bourlès
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Yao Fu, Johannes Karstensen, and Peter Brandt
Ocean Sci., 13, 531–549,Short summary
Meridional Ekman transport in the tropical Atlantic was estimated directly by using observed ageostrophic velocity, and indirectly by using wind stress data. The direct and indirect methods agree well with each other. The top of the pycnocline represents the Ekman depth better than the mixed layer depth and a constant depth. The Ekman heat and salt fluxes calculated from sea surface temperature and salinity or from high-resolution temperature and salinity profile data differ only marginally.
Johannes Hahn, Peter Brandt, Sunke Schmidtko, and Gerd Krahmann
Ocean Sci., 13, 551–576,Short summary
Recent studies have shown that the eastern tropical North Atlantic is subject to a strong decrease of the oceanic oxygen concentration in the upper 1000 m from the 1960s to today. By analyzing a broad observational data set, this study found an even stronger oxygen decrease in the upper 400 m throughout the past decade, whereas oxygen increase was found below (400–1000 m). Changes in the strength of the zonal currents are the most likely reason for the observed decadal oxygen changes.
Amelie Driemel, Eberhard Fahrbach, Gerd Rohardt, Agnieszka Beszczynska-Möller, Antje Boetius, Gereon Budéus, Boris Cisewski, Ralph Engbrodt, Steffen Gauger, Walter Geibert, Patrizia Geprägs, Dieter Gerdes, Rainer Gersonde, Arnold L. Gordon, Hannes Grobe, Hartmut H. Hellmer, Enrique Isla, Stanley S. Jacobs, Markus Janout, Wilfried Jokat, Michael Klages, Gerhard Kuhn, Jens Meincke, Sven Ober, Svein Østerhus, Ray G. Peterson, Benjamin Rabe, Bert Rudels, Ursula Schauer, Michael Schröder, Stefanie Schumacher, Rainer Sieger, Jüri Sildam, Thomas Soltwedel, Elena Stangeew, Manfred Stein, Volker H Strass, Jörn Thiede, Sandra Tippenhauer, Cornelis Veth, Wilken-Jon von Appen, Marie-France Weirig, Andreas Wisotzki, Dieter A. Wolf-Gladrow, and Torsten Kanzow
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 211–220,Short summary
Our oceans are always in motion – huge water masses are circulated by winds and by global seawater density gradients resulting from different water temperatures and salinities. Measuring temperature and salinity of the world's oceans is crucial e.g. to understand our climate. Since 1983, the research icebreaker Polarstern has been the basis of numerous water profile measurements in the Arctic and the Antarctic. We report on a unique collection of 33 years of polar salinity and temperature data.
Florian Schütte, Johannes Karstensen, Gerd Krahmann, Helena Hauss, Björn Fiedler, Peter Brandt, Martin Visbeck, and Arne Körtzinger
Biogeosciences, 13, 5865–5881,Short summary
Mesoscale eddies with very low–oxygen concentrations at shallow depth have been recently discovered in the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Our analysis shows that low oxygen eddies occur more frequent than expected and are found even close to the equator (8° N). From budget calculations we show that an oxygen reduction of 7 µmol/kg in the depth range of 50–150 m in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (peak reduction is 16 µmol/kg at 100 m depth) can be associated with the dispersion of these eddies.
Florian Schütte, Peter Brandt, and Johannes Karstensen
Ocean Sci., 12, 663–685,Short summary
We want to examine the characteristics of mesoscale eddies in the tropical northeastern Atlantic. They serve as transport agents, exporting water from the coast into the open ocean. Traditionally eddies are categorized with respect to their rotation: cyclonic and anticyclonic. But we could identify, with a combination of different satellite products, a third type called "anticyclonic mode-water eddy" transporting much larger anomalies. We propose a distinction into three classes for further studies.
K. A. Reeve, O. Boebel, T. Kanzow, V. Strass, G. Rohardt, and E. Fahrbach
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 15–40,Short summary
We present spatially gridded, time-composite mapped data of temperature and salinity of the upper 2000m of the Weddell Gyre through the objective mapping of Argo float data. This was realized on fixed-pressure surfaces ranging from 50 to 2000 dbar. Pressure, temperature and salinity are also available at the level of the sub-surface temperature maximum, which represents the core of Warm Deep Water, the primary heat source of the Weddell Gyre. A detailed description of the methods is provided.
L. Stramma, R. Czeschel, T. Tanhua, P. Brandt, M. Visbeck, and B. S. Giese
Ocean Sci., 12, 153–167,Short summary
The subsurface circulation in the eastern tropical North Atlantic OMZ is derived from velocity, float and tracer data and data assimilation results, and shows a cyclonic flow around the Guinea Dome reaching into the oxygen minimum zone. The stronger cyclonic flow around the Guinea Dome in 2009 seem to be connected to a strong Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) event. A continuous deoxygenation trend of the low oxygen layer was confirmed. Eddy influence is weak south of the Cape Verde Islands.
J. Karstensen, B. Fiedler, F. Schütte, P. Brandt, A. Körtzinger, G. Fischer, R. Zantopp, J. Hahn, M. Visbeck, and D. Wallace
Biogeosciences, 12, 2597–2605,Short summary
This study is the first report of the formation of dead zones in the open ocean. A combination of multiple ocean observing system elements (mooring, floats, satellites, ships) allowed us to reconstruct the generation of the dead zones and to connect the formation to enhanced respiration within mesoscale ocean eddies. The dead zones present specific threats to the ecosystem, such as the interruption of the diurnal migration of zooplankters.
P. Brandt, H. W. Bange, D. Banyte, M. Dengler, S.-H. Didwischus, T. Fischer, R. J. Greatbatch, J. Hahn, T. Kanzow, J. Karstensen, A. Körtzinger, G. Krahmann, S. Schmidtko, L. Stramma, T. Tanhua, and M. Visbeck
Biogeosciences, 12, 489–512,Short summary
Our observational study looks at the structure of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in comparison with the less-ventilated, eastern tropical South Pacific OMZ. We quantify the OMZ’s oxygen budget composed of consumption, advection, lateral and vertical mixing. Substantial oxygen variability is observed on interannual to multidecadal timescales. The deoxygenation of the ETNA OMZ during the last decades represents a substantial imbalance of the oxygen budget.
T. Fischer, D. Banyte, P. Brandt, M. Dengler, G. Krahmann, T. Tanhua, and M. Visbeck
Biogeosciences, 10, 5079–5093,
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The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of the climate system. Understanding its structure and variability is a key priority for many scientists. Here, we present the first estimate of AMOC variations for the tropical South Atlantic from the TRACOS array at 11° S. Over the observed period, the AMOC was dominated by seasonal variability. We investigate the respective mechanisms with an ocean model and find that different wind-forced waves play a big role.
The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of the climate...