Articles | Volume 18, issue 1
Research article
19 Jan 2022
Research article |  | 19 Jan 2022

Refined estimates of water transport through the Åland Sea in the Baltic Sea

Antti Westerlund, Elina Miettunen, Laura Tuomi, and Pekka Alenius

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Cited articles

Ahlgren, J., Grimvall, A., Omstedt, A., Rolff, C., and Wikner, J.: Temperature, DOC level and basin interactions explain the declining oxygen concentrations in the Bothnian Sea, J. Marine Syst., 170, 22–30,, 2017. a
Ambjörn, C. and Gidhagen, L.: Vatten- och materialtransporter mellan Bottniska viken och Östersjön, available at: (last access: 30 September 2020), 1979. a, b, c, d, e
CMEMS: Baltic Sea Physics Reanalysis, CMEMS [data set],, 2022. a
Ehlin, U. and Ambjörn, C.: Water Transport through the Åland Sea, Ambio Special Report, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Springer, 117–125, available at: (last access: 9 September 2019), 1977. a, b, c, d
FMI: The Finnish Meteorological Institute's open data, FMI, available at:, last access: 4 January 2022. a
Short summary
Water exchange through the Åland Sea (in the Baltic Sea) affects the conditions in the neighbouring Gulf of Bothnia. Pathways and variability of flows were studied with a high-resolution hydrodynamic model. Our analysis showed a northward transport in the deep layer and net transport towards the south in the surface layer. While on the southern edge of the Åland Sea the primary route of deep-water exchange is through Lågskär Deep, some deep water still bypasses it to the Åland Sea.