Articles | Volume 18, issue 4
Technical note
19 Jul 2022
Technical note |  | 19 Jul 2022

Technical note: On seasonal variability of the M2 tide

Richard D. Ray

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Preface: Developments in the science and history of tides
Philip L. Woodworth, J. A. Mattias Green, Richard D. Ray, and John M. Huthnance
Ocean Sci., 17, 809–818,,, 2021
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Accuracy assessment of global internal-tide models using satellite altimetry
Loren Carrere, Brian K. Arbic, Brian Dushaw, Gary Egbert, Svetlana Erofeeva, Florent Lyard, Richard D. Ray, Clément Ubelmann, Edward Zaron, Zhongxiang Zhao, Jay F. Shriver, Maarten Cornelis Buijsman, and Nicolas Picot
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Manuel Johnson's tide record at St. Helena
David E. Cartwright, Philip L. Woodworth, and Richard D. Ray
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Reduction of the 59-day error signal in the Mean Sea Level derived from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 data with the latest FES and GOT ocean tide models
Lionel Zawadzki, Michaël Ablain, Loren Carrere, Richard D. Ray, Nikita P. Zelensky, Florent Lyard, Amandine Guillot, and Nicolas Picot
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Cited articles

Amin, M.: The fine resolution of tidal harmonics, Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 44, 293–310, 1976. a
Bij de Vaate, I., Vasulkar, A. N., Slobbe, D. C., and Verlaan, M.: The influence of Arctic landfast ice on seasonal modulation of the M2 tide, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 126, e2020JC016630,, 2021. a
Brouwer, D. and Clemence, G. M.: Methods of Celestial Mechanics, Academic Press, New York, 1961. a
Calvo, M., Rosat, S., and Hinderer, J.: Tidal spectroscopy from a long record of superconducting gravimeters at Strasbourg, in: International Symposium on Earth Sciences for Future Generations, edited by: Freymueller, J. and Sanchez, L., 131–136, Springer,, 2016. a
Cartwright, D. E.: Tides: A Scientific History, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1999. a
Short summary
Seasonal variability of the M2 ocean tide can be detected at many ports. The physical mechanisms underlying seasonality, in the broadest terms, are astronomical, frictional–advective interactions, and climate processes. Some of these induce annual modulations, some semiannual, in amplitude, phase, or both. This note reviews how this occurs and gives an example from each broad category. Phase conventions and their relationship with causal mechanisms, as well as nomenclature, are also addressed.