Articles | Volume 17, issue 6
11 Nov 2021
Research article | 11 Nov 2021
Mean sea level and tidal change in Ireland since 1842: a case study of Cork
David T. Pugh et al.
No articles found.
Philip L. Woodworth and John M. Vassie
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4387–4396,Short summary
An electronic data set of tidal measurements at St. Helena in 1761 by Nevil Maskelyne is described. These data were first analysed by Cartwright in papers on changing tides, but his data files were never archived. The now newly digitised Maskelyne data have been reanalysed in order to obtain an updated impression of whether the tide has changed at that location in over two and a half centuries. Our main conclusion is that the major tidal constituent (M2) has changed little.
Amin Shoari Nejad, Andrew C. Parnell, Alice Greene, Peter Thorne, Brian P. Kelleher, Robert J. N. Devoy, and Gerard McCarthy
Ocean Sci., 18, 511–522,Short summary
We have collated multiple sources of tide gauge data for Dublin Port, and subsequently corrected them for bias. We have then shown that these corrected mean sea level measurements agree with nearby tide gauges to a far higher degree than the raw data. A longer-term comparison with Brest and Newlyn also indicates overall agreement. Our final adjusted dataset estimated the rate of sea level rise to be 1.1 mm/yr between 1953 and 2016 and 7 mm/yr between 1997 and 2016 at Dublin Port.
Samuel Tiéfolo Diabaté, Didier Swingedouw, Joël Jean-Marie Hirschi, Aurélie Duchez, Philip J. Leadbitter, Ivan D. Haigh, and Gerard D. McCarthy
Ocean Sci., 17, 1449–1471,Short summary
The Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio are major currents of the North Atlantic and North Pacific, respectively. They transport warm water northward and are key components of the Earth climate system. For this study, we looked at how they affect the sea level of the coasts of Japan, the USA and Canada. We found that the inshore sea level co-varies with the north-to-south shifts of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio. In the paper, we discuss the physical mechanisms that could explain the agreement.
Philip L. Woodworth, J. A. Mattias Green, Richard D. Ray, and John M. Huthnance
Ocean Sci., 17, 809–818,Short summary
This special issue marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Liverpool Tidal Institute (LTI). The preface gives a history of the LTI founding and of its first two directors. It also gives an overview of LTI research on tides. Summaries are given of the 26 papers in the special issue. Their topics could be thought of as providing a continuation of the research first undertaken at the LTI. They provide an interesting snapshot of work on tides now being made by groups around the world.
Emma L. Worthington, Ben I. Moat, David A. Smeed, Jennifer V. Mecking, Robert Marsh, and Gerard D. McCarthy
Ocean Sci., 17, 285–299,Short summary
The RAPID array has observed the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) since 2004, but the AMOC was directly calculated only five times from 1957–2004. Here we create a statistical regression model from RAPID data, relating AMOC changes to density changes within the different water masses at 26° N, and apply it to historical hydrographic data. The resulting 1981–2016 record shows that the AMOC from 2008–2012 was its weakest since the mid-1980s, but it shows no overall decline.
Amin Shoari Nejad, Andrew C. Parnell, Alice Greene, Brian P. Kelleher, and Gerard McCarthy
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Publication in OS not foreseenShort summary
Following the concerns regarding the consequences of global warming and sea levels rise around the globe, we decided to evaluate how Dublin bay, as an important metropolitan area, is getting affected. After analysing the recordings of multiple tide gauges that are measuring sea levels in the bay, we found that the sea level has been rising 10 millimeters per year between 2003 and 2015 in the region. Also according to our estimations, sea level rise has not been negative since 1996.
Philip L. Woodworth
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 11, 15–29,Short summary
The Liverpool Tidal Institute's (LTI) 100th anniversary was in 2019, and it acquired a reputation using tide prediction machines (TPMs). We describe the principles of a TPM, how many were made and Doodson's method to determine harmonic constants from tidal data to predict the tides. Although only three TPMs were used at the LTI, Doodson oversaw the design and manufacture of several others. We show how the UK, and Doodson particularly, played a central role in this area of science.
Denise Smythe-Wright, W. John Gould, Trevor J. McDougall, Stefania Sparnocchia, and Philip L. Woodworth
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 10, 137–150,Short summary
From the early work of Prince Albert I of Monaco, the first president of the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans, to today, the Association has promoted and supported international research and cross-cutting activities in ocean sciences, building on the work of the many far-sighted scientists who, over the last century, have addressed seemingly intractable problems. This paper describes key events in IAPSO's history and the roles played by the scientists involved.
Philip L. Woodworth
Ocean Sci., 15, 431–442,Short summary
This is the first investigation of the worldwide distribution of the degree-3 M1 ocean tide using over 800 tide gauge records and a global tide model. M1 is confirmed to have a geographical variation in the Atlantic and other basins consistent with the suggestion of Platzman and Cartwright that M1 is generated through the spatial and temporal overlap of M1 in the tidal potential and one (or at least a small number of) diurnal ocean normal mode(s).
Philip L. Woodworth and Angela Hibbert
Ocean Sci., 14, 711–730,Short summary
30 years of BPR data at Drake Passage are used to investigate the Mf, Mm and Mt long-period tides. Amplitudes of Mf and Mt, and all phase lags, vary over the nodal cycle as in the equilibrium tide. Mm amplitude is almost constant, and so inconsistent at 3σ from anticipation due to energetic non-tidal variability. Most findings agree with a modern ocean tide model. BPR records are superior to conventional tide gauge data in this work due to lower proportion of non-tidal variability.
Philip L. Woodworth and Glen H. Rowe
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 9, 85–103,Short summary
This paper discusses the quality of James Cook’s tidal measurements during the voyage of the Endeavour. We conclude that his measurements were accurate in general to about 0.5 ft in height and 30 min in time. They were good enough (or unique enough) to be included in global compilations of tidal information in the 18th century and were used in the 19th century in the construction of the first worldwide tidal atlases. They support Cook’s reputation as a good observer of the environment.
David E. Cartwright, Philip L. Woodworth, and Richard D. Ray
Hist. Geo Space. Sci., 8, 9–19,Short summary
This paper discusses an historical record of the ocean tide made by the astronomer Manuel Johnson (a future President of the Royal Astronomical Society) at St. Helena in 1826–27. It describes how the measurements were made using a tide gauge of an unusual design, which recorded the heights of the high and low tides well, although information on their times were not so accurate. Johnson’s work is not well known. One objective of the present research was to make his measurements more accessible.
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Observations of sea level, taken manually by reading a tide pole, were carefully taken at a number of locations around Ireland in 1842 as part of the first land survey of Ireland. Our study investigates how useful this type of sea level observation is for understanding mean sea level and tidal change. We find that when carefully adjusted for seasonal, meteorological, and astronomical factors, these data can provide important insights into changing sea levels.
Observations of sea level, taken manually by reading a tide pole, were carefully taken at a...