Articles | Volume 15, issue 3
Ocean Sci., 15, 779–808, 2019

Special issue: The Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS):...

Ocean Sci., 15, 779–808, 2019

Research article 20 Jun 2019

Research article | 20 Jun 2019

The ECMWF operational ensemble reanalysis–analysis system for ocean and sea ice: a description of the system and assessment

Hao Zuo et al.

Related authors

Year-round impact of winter sea ice thickness observations on seasonal forecasts
Beena Balan-Sarojini, Steffen Tietsche, Michael Mayer, Magdalena Balmaseda, Hao Zuo, Patricia de Rosnay, Tim Stockdale, and Frederic Vitart
The Cryosphere, 15, 325–344,,, 2021
Short summary
Thin Arctic sea ice in L-band observations and an ocean reanalysis
Steffen Tietsche, Magdalena Alonso-Balmaseda, Patricia Rosnay, Hao Zuo, Xiangshan Tian-Kunze, and Lars Kaleschke
The Cryosphere, 12, 2051–2072,,, 2018
Short summary
An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative
Jean-François Legeais, Michaël Ablain, Lionel Zawadzki, Hao Zuo, Johnny A. Johannessen, Martin G. Scharffenberg, Luciana Fenoglio-Marc, M. Joana Fernandes, Ole Baltazar Andersen, Sergei Rudenko, Paolo Cipollini, Graham D. Quartly, Marcello Passaro, Anny Cazenave, and Jérôme Benveniste
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 281–301,,, 2018
Short summary

Related subject area

Depth range: All Depths | Approach: Data Assimilation | Geographical range: All Geographic Regions | Phenomena: Temperature, Salinity and Density Fields
Observed and simulated full-depth ocean heat-content changes for 1970–2005
Lijing Cheng, Kevin E. Trenberth, Matthew D. Palmer, Jiang Zhu, and John P. Abraham
Ocean Sci., 12, 925–935,,, 2016
Short summary
TOPAZ4: an ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic and Arctic
P. Sakov, F. Counillon, L. Bertino, K. A. Lisæter, P. R. Oke, and A. Korablev
Ocean Sci., 8, 633–656,,, 2012
Transports and budgets in a 1/4 ° global ocean reanalysis 1989–2010
K. Haines, M. Valdivieso, H. Zuo, and V. N. Stepanov
Ocean Sci., 8, 333–344,,, 2012
Impact of combining GRACE and GOCE gravity data on ocean circulation estimates
T. Janjić, J. Schröter, R. Savcenko, W. Bosch, A. Albertella, R. Rummel, and O. Klatt
Ocean Sci., 8, 65–79,,, 2012
Metrological traceability of oceanographic salinity measurement results
S. Seitz, R. Feistel, D. G. Wright, S. Weinreben, P. Spitzer, and P. De Bièvre
Ocean Sci., 7, 45–62,,, 2011

Cited articles

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Larnicol, G., Balmaseda, M. A., Cipollini, P., Faugère, Y., Fernandes, M. J., Henry, O., Johannessen, J. A., Knudsen, P., Andersen, O., Legeais, J., Meyssignac, B., Picot, N., Roca, M., Rudenko, S., Scharffenberg, M. G., Stammer, D., Timms, G., and Benveniste, J.: Improved sea level record over the satellite altimetry era (1993–2010) from the Climate Change Initiative project, Ocean Sci., 11, 67–82,, 2015. a
Balmaseda, M., Hernandez, F., Storto, A., Palmer, M., Alves, O., Shi, L., Smith, G., Toyoda, T., Valdivieso, M., Barnier, B., Behringer, D., Boyer, T., Chang, Y.-S., Chepurin, G., Ferry, N., Forget, G., Fujii, Y., Good, S., Guinehut, S., Haines, K., Ishikawa, Y., Keeley, S., Köhl, A., Lee, T., Martin, M., Masina, S., Masuda, S., Meyssignac, B., Mogensen, K., Parent, L., Peterson, K., Tang, Y., Yin, Y., Vernieres, G., Wang, X., Waters, J., Wedd, R., Wang, O., Xue, Y., Chevallier, M., Lemieux, J.-F., Dupont, F., Kuragano, T., Kamachi, M., Awaji, T., Caltabiano, A., Wilmer-Becker, K., and Gaillard, F.: The Ocean Reanalyses Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP), J. Oper. Oceanogr., 8, s80–s97,, 2015. a
Balmaseda, M. A.: Ocean analysis at ECMWF: From real-time ocean initial conditions to historical ocean reanalysis, ECMWF Newsletter, 105, 24–42, 2005. a
Balmaseda, M. A. and Anderson, D.: Impact of initialization strategies and observations on seasonal forecast skill, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L01701,, 2009. a
Balmaseda, M. A., Vidard, A., and Anderson, D. L. T.: The ECMWF Ocean Analysis System: ORA-S3, Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 3018–3034,, 2008. a
Short summary
OCEAN5 is the fifth generation of the ocean and sea-ice analysis system at ECMWF. It was used for production of historical ocean and sea-ice states from 1979 onwards and is also used for generating real-time ocean and sea-ice states responsible for initializing the operational ECMWF weather forecasting system. This is a valuable data set with broad applications. A description of the OCEAN5 system and an assessment of the historical data set have been documented in this reference paper.