Articles | Volume 19, issue 1
Research article
22 Feb 2023
Research article |  | 22 Feb 2023

Observation-based estimates of volume, heat, and freshwater exchanges between the subpolar North Atlantic interior, its boundary currents, and the atmosphere

Sam C. Jones, Neil J. Fraser, Stuart A. Cunningham, Alan D. Fox, and Mark E. Inall


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Latest update: 16 Jul 2024
Short summary
Warm water is transported from the tropical Atlantic towards western Europe and the Arctic. It loses heat to the atmosphere on the way, which strongly influences the climate. We construct a dataset encircling the North Atlantic basin north of 47° N. We calculate how and where heat enters and leaves the basin and how much cooling must happen in the interior. We find that cooling in the north-eastern Atlantic is a crucial step in controlling the conversion of water to higher densities.