Articles | Volume 17, issue 5
22 Oct 2021
Research article | 22 Oct 2021
Western boundary circulation and coastal sea-level variability in Northern Hemisphere oceans
Samuel Tiéfolo Diabaté et al.
No articles found.
Peter M. F. Sheehan, Gillian M. Damerell, Philip J. Leadbitter, Karen J. Heywood, and Rob A. Hall
We calculate the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, i.e. the mixing driven by small-scale ocean turbulent, in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean via two methods. We find good agreement between the results of both. A region of elevated mixing is found between 200 and 500 m, and we calculate the associate heat and salt fluxes. We find that double-diffusive mixing in salt fingers, a common feature of the tropical oceans, drives larger heat and salt fluxes than the turbulent mixing.
Amin Shoari Nejad, Andrew C. Parnell, Alice Greene, Peter Thorne, Brian P. Kelleher, Robert J. N. Devoy, and Gerard McCarthy
Ocean Sci., 18, 511–522,Short summary
We have collated multiple sources of tide gauge data for Dublin Port, and subsequently corrected them for bias. We have then shown that these corrected mean sea level measurements agree with nearby tide gauges to a far higher degree than the raw data. A longer-term comparison with Brest and Newlyn also indicates overall agreement. Our final adjusted dataset estimated the rate of sea level rise to be 1.1 mm/yr between 1953 and 2016 and 7 mm/yr between 1997 and 2016 at Dublin Port.
Melissa Wood, Ivan D. Haigh, Quan Quan Le, Hung Nghia Nguyen, Hoang Ba Tran, Stephen E. Darby, Robert Marsh, Nikolaos Skliris, Joël J.-M. Hirschi, Robert J. Nicholls, and Nadia Bloemendaal
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for NHESSShort summary
We used a novel database of simulated tropical cyclone tracks to explore whether typhoon-induced storm surges present a future flood risk to low lying coastal communities around the South China Sea. We found that future climate change is likely to change tropical cyclone behaviour to an extent that this increases the severity and frequency of storm surges to Vietnam, southern China and Thailand. Consequently, coastal flood defences need to be reviewed for resilience against this future hazard.
Ahmed A. Nasr, Thomas Wahl, Md Mamunur Rashid, Paula Camus, and Ivan D. Haigh
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 6203–6222,Short summary
We analyse dependences between different flooding drivers around the USA coastline, where the Gulf of Mexico and the southeastern and southwestern coasts are regions of high dependence between flooding drivers. Dependence is higher during the tropical season in the Gulf and at some locations on the East Coast but higher during the extratropical season on the West Coast. The analysis gives new insights on locations, driver combinations, and the time of the year when compound flooding is likely.
David T. Pugh, Edmund Bridge, Robin Edwards, Peter Hogarth, Guy Westbrook, Philip L. Woodworth, and Gerard D. McCarthy
Ocean Sci., 17, 1623–1637,Short summary
Observations of sea level, taken manually by reading a tide pole, were carefully taken at a number of locations around Ireland in 1842 as part of the first land survey of Ireland. Our study investigates how useful this type of sea level observation is for understanding mean sea level and tidal change. We find that when carefully adjusted for seasonal, meteorological, and astronomical factors, these data can provide important insights into changing sea levels.
Julia Rulent, Lucy M. Bricheno, J. A. Mattias Green, Ivan D. Haigh, and Huw Lewis
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3339–3351,Short summary
High coastal total water levels (TWLs) can lead to flooding and hazardous conditions for coastal communities and environment. In this research we are using numerical models to study the interactions between the three main components of the TWL (waves, tides, and surges) on UK and Irish coasts during winter 2013/14. The main finding of this research is that extreme waves and surges can indeed happen together, even at high tide, but they often occurred simultaneously 2–3 h before high tide.
Georg Umgiesser, Marco Bajo, Christian Ferrarin, Andrea Cucco, Piero Lionello, Davide Zanchettin, Alvise Papa, Alessandro Tosoni, Maurizio Ferla, Elisa Coraci, Sara Morucci, Franco Crosato, Andrea Bonometto, Andrea Valentini, Mirko Orlić, Ivan D. Haigh, Jacob Woge Nielsen, Xavier Bertin, André Bustorff Fortunato, Begoña Pérez Gómez, Enrique Alvarez Fanjul, Denis Paradis, Didier Jourdan, Audrey Pasquet, Baptiste Mourre, Joaquín Tintoré, and Robert J. Nicholls
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2679–2704,Short summary
The city of Venice relies crucially on a good storm surge forecast to protect its population and cultural heritage. In this paper, we provide a state-of-the-art review of storm surge forecasting, starting from examples in Europe and focusing on the Adriatic Sea and the Lagoon of Venice. We discuss the physics of storm surge, as well as the particular aspects of Venice and new techniques in storm surge modeling. We also give recommendations on what a future forecasting system should look like.
Julianna Carvalho-Oliveira, Leonard Friedrich Borchert, Aurélie Duchez, Mikhail Dobrynin, and Johanna Baehr
Weather Clim. Dynam., 2, 739–757,Short summary
This work questions the influence of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, an important component of the climate system, on the variability in North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) a season ahead, particularly how this influence affects SST prediction credibility 2–4 months into the future. While we find this relationship is relevant for assessing SST predictions, it strongly depends on the time period and season we analyse and is more subtle than what is found in observations.
Paula Camus, Ivan D. Haigh, Ahmed A. Nasr, Thomas Wahl, Stephen E. Darby, and Robert J. Nicholls
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2021–2040,Short summary
In coastal regions, floods can arise through concurrent drivers, such as precipitation, river discharge, storm surge, and waves, which exacerbate the impact. In this study, we identify hotspots of compound flooding along the southern coast of the North Atlantic Ocean and the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. This regional assessment can be considered a screening tool for coastal management that provides information about which areas are more predisposed to experience compound flooding.
Andrew Yool, Julien Palmiéri, Colin G. Jones, Lee de Mora, Till Kuhlbrodt, Ekatarina E. Popova, A. J. George Nurser, Joel Hirschi, Adam T. Blaker, Andrew C. Coward, Edward W. Blockley, and Alistair A. Sellar
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3437–3472,Short summary
The ocean plays a key role in modulating the Earth’s climate. Understanding this role is critical when using models to project future climate change. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate their realism against the ocean's observed state. Here we validate UKESM1, a new Earth system model, focusing on the realism of its ocean physics and circulation, as well as its biological cycles and productivity. While we identify biases, generally the model performs well over a wide range of properties.
Yasser Hamdi, Ivan D. Haigh, Sylvie Parey, and Thomas Wahl
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1461–1465,
Pablo Ortega, Jon I. Robson, Matthew Menary, Rowan T. Sutton, Adam Blaker, Agathe Germe, Jöel J.-M. Hirschi, Bablu Sinha, Leon Hermanson, and Stephen Yeager
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 419–438,Short summary
Deep Labrador Sea densities are receiving increasing attention because of their link to many of the processes that govern decadal climate oscillations in the North Atlantic and their potential use as a precursor of those changes. This article explores those links and how they are represented in global climate models, documenting the main differences across models. Models are finally compared with observational products to identify the ones that reproduce the links more realistically.
Emma L. Worthington, Ben I. Moat, David A. Smeed, Jennifer V. Mecking, Robert Marsh, and Gerard D. McCarthy
Ocean Sci., 17, 285–299,Short summary
The RAPID array has observed the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) since 2004, but the AMOC was directly calculated only five times from 1957–2004. Here we create a statistical regression model from RAPID data, relating AMOC changes to density changes within the different water masses at 26° N, and apply it to historical hydrographic data. The resulting 1981–2016 record shows that the AMOC from 2008–2012 was its weakest since the mid-1980s, but it shows no overall decline.
Adam T. Blaker, Manoj Joshi, Bablu Sinha, David P. Stevens, Robin S. Smith, and Joël J.-M. Hirschi
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 275–293,Short summary
FORTE 2.0 is a flexible coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model that can be run on modest hardware. We present two 2000-year simulations which show that FORTE 2.0 is capable of producing a stable climate. Earlier versions of FORTE were used for a wide range of studies, ranging from aquaplanet configurations to investigating the cold European winters of 2009–2010. This paper introduces the updated model for which the code and configuration are now publicly available.
Amin Shoari Nejad, Andrew C. Parnell, Alice Greene, Brian P. Kelleher, and Gerard McCarthy
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Publication in OS not foreseenShort summary
Following the concerns regarding the consequences of global warming and sea levels rise around the globe, we decided to evaluate how Dublin bay, as an important metropolitan area, is getting affected. After analysing the recordings of multiple tide gauges that are measuring sea levels in the bay, we found that the sea level has been rising 10 millimeters per year between 2003 and 2015 in the region. Also according to our estimations, sea level rise has not been negative since 1996.
Ramdane Alkama, Patrick C. Taylor, Lorea Garcia-San Martin, Herve Douville, Gregory Duveiller, Giovanni Forzieri, Didier Swingedouw, and Alessandro Cescatti
The Cryosphere, 14, 2673–2686,Short summary
The amount of solar energy absorbed by Earth is believed to strongly depend on clouds. Here, we investigate this relationship using satellite data and 32 climate models, showing that this relationship holds everywhere except over polar seas, where an increased reflection by clouds corresponds to an increase in absorbed solar radiation at the surface. This interplay between clouds and sea ice reduces by half the increase of net radiation at the surface that follows the sea ice retreat.
Pierre Sepulchre, Arnaud Caubel, Jean-Baptiste Ladant, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Boucher, Pascale Braconnot, Patrick Brockmann, Anne Cozic, Yannick Donnadieu, Jean-Louis Dufresne, Victor Estella-Perez, Christian Ethé, Frédéric Fluteau, Marie-Alice Foujols, Guillaume Gastineau, Josefine Ghattas, Didier Hauglustaine, Frédéric Hourdin, Masa Kageyama, Myriam Khodri, Olivier Marti, Yann Meurdesoif, Juliette Mignot, Anta-Clarisse Sarr, Jérôme Servonnat, Didier Swingedouw, Sophie Szopa, and Delphine Tardif
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3011–3053,Short summary
Our paper describes IPSL-CM5A2, an Earth system model that can be integrated for long (several thousands of years) climate simulations. We describe the technical aspects, assess the model computing performance and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the model, by comparing pre-industrial and historical runs to the previous-generation model simulations and to observations. We also present a Cretaceous simulation as a case study to show how the model simulates deep-time paleoclimates.
Scott A. Stephens, Robert G. Bell, and Ivan D. Haigh
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 783–796,Short summary
Extreme sea levels in New Zealand occur in nearby places and at similar times, which means that flooding impacts and losses may be linked in space and time. The most extreme sea levels depend on storms coinciding with very high tides because storm surges are relatively small in New Zealand. The type of storm weather system influences where the extreme sea levels occur, and the annual timing is influenced by the low-amplitude (~10 cm) annual sea-level cycle.
Simon Michel, Didier Swingedouw, Marie Chavent, Pablo Ortega, Juliette Mignot, and Myriam Khodri
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 841–858,Short summary
Natural archives such as sediments, ice, tree rings or speleothems provide indirect observations of past climate at local and regional scales. In this paper, we provide a computational device to properly make evaluated reconstructions of climate indices using these paleo-data. It provides optimizing cross-validation algorithms and four regression methods that are applied to the reconstruction of the North Atlantic Oscillation index and compared in this study.
Anaïs Couasnon, Dirk Eilander, Sanne Muis, Ted I. E. Veldkamp, Ivan D. Haigh, Thomas Wahl, Hessel C. Winsemius, and Philip J. Ward
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 489–504,Short summary
When a high river discharge coincides with a high storm surge level, this can exarcebate flood level, depth, and duration, resulting in a so-called compound flood event. These events are not currently included in global flood models. In this research, we analyse the timing and correlation between modelled discharge and storm surge level time series in deltas and estuaries. Our results provide a first indication of regions along the global coastline with a high compound flooding potential.
Pierre Sabatier, Marie Nicolle, Christine Piot, Christophe Colin, Maxime Debret, Didier Swingedouw, Yves Perrette, Marie-Charlotte Bellingery, Benjamin Chazeau, Anne-Lise Develle, Maxime Leblanc, Charlotte Skonieczny, Yoann Copard, Jean-Louis Reyss, Emmanuel Malet, Isabelle Jouffroy-Bapicot, Maëlle Kelner, Jérôme Poulenard, Julien Didier, Fabien Arnaud, and Boris Vannière
Clim. Past, 16, 283–298,Short summary
High-resolution multiproxy analysis of sediment core from a high-elevation lake on Corsica allows us to reconstruct past African dust inputs to the western Mediterranean area over the last 3 millennia. Millennial variations of Saharan dust input have been correlated with the long-term southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, while short-term variations were associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and total solar irradiance after and before 1070 cal BP, respectively.
Alistair Hendry, Ivan D. Haigh, Robert J. Nicholls, Hugo Winter, Robert Neal, Thomas Wahl, Amélie Joly-Laugel, and Stephen E. Darby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3117–3139,Short summary
Flooding can arise from multiple sources, including waves, extreme sea levels, rivers, and severe rainfall. When two or more sources combine, the consequences can be greatly multiplied. We find the potential for the joint occurrence of extreme sea levels and river discharge to be greater on the western coast of the UK compared to the eastern coast. This is due to the weather conditions generating each flood source around the UK. These results will help increase our flood forecasting ability.
Nathaelle Bouttes, Didier Swingedouw, Didier M. Roche, Maria F. Sanchez-Goni, and Xavier Crosta
Clim. Past, 14, 239–253,Short summary
Atmospheric CO2 is key for climate change. CO2 is lower during the oldest warm period of the last million years, the interglacials, than during the most recent ones (since 430 000 years ago). This difference has not been explained yet, but could be due to changes of ocean circulation. We test this hypothesis and the role of vegetation and ice sheets using an intermediate complexity model. We show that only small changes of CO2 can be obtained, underlying missing feedbacks or mechanisms.
Mélanie Wary, Frédérique Eynaud, Didier Swingedouw, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Jens Matthiessen, Catherine Kissel, Jena Zumaque, Linda Rossignol, and Jean Jouzel
Clim. Past, 13, 729–739,Short summary
The last glacial period was punctuated by abrupt climatic variations, whose cold atmospheric phases have been commonly associated with cold sea-surface temperatures and expansion of sea ice in the North Atlantic and adjacent seas. Here we provide direct evidence of a regional paradoxical see-saw pattern: cold Greenland and North Atlantic phases coincide with warmer sea-surface conditions and shorter seasonal sea-ice cover durations in the Norwegian Sea as compared to warm phases.
Robert Marsh, Ivan D. Haigh, Stuart A. Cunningham, Mark E. Inall, Marie Porter, and Ben I. Moat
Ocean Sci., 13, 315–335,Short summary
To the west of Britain and Ireland, a strong ocean current follows the steep slope that separates the deep Atlantic and the continental shelf. This “Slope Current” exerts an Atlantic influence on the North Sea and its ecosystems. Using a combination of computer modelling and archived data, we find that the Slope Current weakened over 1988–2007, reducing Atlantic influence on the North Sea, due to a combination of warming of the subpolar North Atlantic and weakening winds to the west of Scotland.
Helene T. Hewitt, Malcolm J. Roberts, Pat Hyder, Tim Graham, Jamie Rae, Stephen E. Belcher, Romain Bourdallé-Badie, Dan Copsey, Andrew Coward, Catherine Guiavarch, Chris Harris, Richard Hill, Joël J.-M. Hirschi, Gurvan Madec, Matthew S. Mizielinski, Erica Neininger, Adrian L. New, Jean-Christophe Rioual, Bablu Sinha, David Storkey, Ann Shelly, Livia Thorpe, and Richard A. Wood
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3655–3670,Short summary
We examine the impact in a coupled model of increasing atmosphere and ocean horizontal resolution and the frequency of coupling between the atmosphere and ocean. We demonstrate that increasing the ocean resolution from 1/4 degree to 1/12 degree has a major impact on ocean circulation and global heat transports. The results add to the body of evidence suggesting that ocean resolution is an important consideration when developing coupled models for weather and climate applications.
M. P. Wadey, J. M. Brown, I. D. Haigh, T. Dolphin, and P. Wisse
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2209–2225,
M. P. Wadey, I. D. Haigh, and J. M. Brown
Ocean Sci., 10, 1031–1045,
J. J.-M. Hirschi, A. T. Blaker, B. Sinha, A. Coward, B. de Cuevas, S. Alderson, and G. Madec
Ocean Sci., 9, 805–823,
M. Kageyama, U. Merkel, B. Otto-Bliesner, M. Prange, A. Abe-Ouchi, G. Lohmann, R. Ohgaito, D. M. Roche, J. Singarayer, D. Swingedouw, and X Zhang
Clim. Past, 9, 935–953,
R. Séférian, L. Bopp, D. Swingedouw, and J. Servonnat
Earth Syst. Dynam., 4, 109–127,
M. Casado, P. Ortega, V. Masson-Delmotte, C. Risi, D. Swingedouw, V. Daux, D. Genty, F. Maignan, O. Solomina, B. Vinther, N. Viovy, and P. Yiou
Clim. Past, 9, 871–886,
P. Ortega, M. Montoya, F. González-Rouco, H. Beltrami, and D. Swingedouw
Clim. Past, 9, 547–565,
Collins, M., Sutherland, M., Bouwer, L., Cheong, S.-M., Frölicher, T., Combes, H. J. D., Roxy, M. K., McInnes, I. L. K., Ratter, B., Rivera-Arriaga, E., Susanto, R., Swingedouw, D., and Tibig, L.: Extremes, Abrupt Changes and Managing Risk, in: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, edited by: Pörtner, H.-O., Roberts, D. C., Masson-Delmotte, V., Zhai, P., Tignor, M., Poloczanska, E., Mintenbeck, K., Alegría, A., Nicolai, M., Okem, A., Petzold, J., Rama, B., and Weyer, N. M., IPCC, 2019. a
Cunningham, S. A., Kanzow, T., Rayner, D., Baringer, M. O., Johns, W. E., Marotzke, J., Longworth, H. R., Grant, E. M., Hirschi, J. J.-M., Beal, L. M., Meinen, C. S., and Bryden, H. L.: Temporal Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5∘ N, Science, 317, 935–938, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1141304, 2007. a
Ebisuzaki, W.: A method to estimate the statistical significance of a correlation when the data are serially correlated, J. Climate, 10, 2147–2153, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<2147:AMTETS>2.0.CO;2, 1997. a
Ezer, T.: Detecting changes in the transport of the Gulf Stream and the Atlantic overturning circulation from coastal sea level data: The extreme decline in 2009–2010 and estimated variations for 1935–2012, Global Planet. Change, 129, 23–36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2015.03.002, 2015. a, b
Ezer, T. and Dangendorf, S.: Variability and upward trend in the kinetic energy of western boundary currents over the last century: impacts from barystatic and dynamic sea level change, Clim. Dynam., 57, 1–23, 2021. a
Frankignoul, C., de Coëtlogon, G., Joyce, T. M., and Dong, S.: Gulf Stream variability and ocean – atmosphere interactions, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 3516–3529, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2002)031<3516:GSVAOA>2.0.CO;2, 2001. a, b
Fuglister, F. C.: Alternative analyses of current surveys, Deep-Sea Res., 2, 213–229, 1955. a
Häkkinen, S.: Decadal air–sea interaction in the North Atlantic based on observations and modeling results, J. Climate, 13, 1195–1219, 2000. a
Holgate, S. J., Matthews, A., Woodworth, P. L., Rickards, L. J., Tamisiea, M. E., Bradshaw, E., Foden, P. R., Gordon, K. M., Jevrejeva, S., and Pugh, J.: New data systems and products at the permanent service for mean sea level, J. Coast. Res., 29, 493–504, https://doi.org/10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-12-00175.1, 2013. a
Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., Reynolds, R., Jenne, R., and Joseph, D.: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437–471, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2, 1996. a, b
Kawabe, M.: Variability of Kuroshio velocity assessed from the sea-level difference between Naze and Nishinoomote, Journal of Oceanographical Society of Japan, 44, 293–304, 1988. a
Kawabe, M.: A steady model of typical non-large-meander paths of the Kuroshio current, Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan, 46, 55–67, 1990. a
Kobayashi, S., Ota, Y., Harada, Y., Ebita, A., Moriya, M., Onoda, H., Onogi, K., Kamahori, H., Kobayashi, C., Endo, H., Miyaoka, K., and Takahashi, K.: The JRA-55 reanalysis: General specifications and basic characteristics, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. Ser. II, 93, 5–48, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2015-001, 2015. a
Little, C. M., Hu, A., Hughes, C. W., McCarthy, G. D., Piecuch, C. G., Ponte, R. M., and Thomas, M. D.: The relationship between US east coast sea level and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: A review, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 124, 6435–6458, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JC015152, 2019. a
Meyssignac, B., Slangen, A. A., Melet, A., Church, J., Fettweis, X., Marzeion, B., Agosta, C., Ligtenberg, S., Spada, G., Richter, K., Palmer, M. D., Roberts, C. D., and Champollion, N.: Evaluating model simulations of twentieth-century sea-level rise. Part II: regional sea-level changes, J. Climate, 30, 8565–8593, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0112.1, 2017. a
Munk, W. H.: On the wind-driven ocean circulation, J. Atmos. Sci., 7, 80–93, 1950. a
Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M. (Eds.): Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 2013. a
Stommel, H.: The westward intensification of wind-driven ocean currents, EOS T. American Geophys. Un., 29, 202–206, 1948. a
Sturges, W. and Hong, B.: Wind forcing of the Atlantic thermocline along 32 N at low frequencies, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 1706–1715, 1995. a
Thornalley, D. J., Oppo, D. W., Ortega, P., Robson, J. I., Brierley, C. M., Davis, R., Hall, I. R., Moffa-Sanchez, P., Rose, N. L., Spooner, P. T., Yashayaev, I., and Keigwin, L. D.: Anomalously weak Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning during the past 150 years, Nature, 556, 227–230, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0007-4, 2018. a
Volkov, D. L., Lee, S.-K., Domingues, R., Zhang, H., and Goes, M.: Interannual sea level variability along the southeastern seaboard of the United States in relation to the gyre-scale heat divergence in the North Atlantic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 7481–7490, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083596, 2019. a
Woodworth, P., Maqueda, M. M., Gehrels, W. R., Roussenov, V., Williams, R., and Hughes, C.: Variations in the difference between mean sea level measured either side of Cape Hatteras and their relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation, Clim. Dynam., 49, 2451–2469, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3464-1, 2017. a, b, c, d, e
Woodworth, P. L., Melet, A., Marcos, M., Ray, R. D., Wöppelmann, G., Sasaki, Y. N., Cirano, M., Hibbert, A., Huthnance, J. M., Monserrat, S., and Merrifield, M. A.: Forcing factors affecting sea level changes at the coast, Surv. Geophys., 40, 1351–1397, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-019-09531-1, 2019. a
The Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio are major currents of the North Atlantic and North Pacific, respectively. They transport warm water northward and are key components of the Earth climate system. For this study, we looked at how they affect the sea level of the coasts of Japan, the USA and Canada. We found that the inshore sea level co-varies with the north-to-south shifts of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio. In the paper, we discuss the physical mechanisms that could explain the agreement.
The Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio are major currents of the North Atlantic and North Pacific,...