Articles | Volume 16, issue 6
Research article
01 Dec 2020
Research article |  | 01 Dec 2020

The winter stratification phenomenon and its consequences in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

Taavi Liblik, Germo Väli, Inga Lips, Madis-Jaak Lilover, Villu Kikas, and Jaan Laanemets


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Short summary
The upper mixed layer, shallower than the depth of the euphotic zone, is one of the preconditions for enhanced primary production in the ocean. In the Baltic Sea, the general understanding is that the upper mixed layer is much deeper in winter. In this study, we demonstrate that wintertime shallow stratification and an elevated phytoplankton biomass proxy, chlorophyll, are common in the Gulf of Finland. Stratification is invoked by the westward flow of riverine water forced by an easterly wind.