Articles | Volume 16, issue 6
Research article
01 Dec 2020
Research article |  | 01 Dec 2020

The winter stratification phenomenon and its consequences in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

Taavi Liblik, Germo Väli, Inga Lips, Madis-Jaak Lilover, Villu Kikas, and Jaan Laanemets


Total article views: 1,815 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
1,289 471 55 1,815 53 47
  • HTML: 1,289
  • PDF: 471
  • XML: 55
  • Total: 1,815
  • BibTeX: 53
  • EndNote: 47
Views and downloads (calculated since 25 May 2020)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 25 May 2020)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 1,815 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 1,639 with geography defined and 176 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1


Latest update: 05 Jun 2023
Short summary
The upper mixed layer, shallower than the depth of the euphotic zone, is one of the preconditions for enhanced primary production in the ocean. In the Baltic Sea, the general understanding is that the upper mixed layer is much deeper in winter. In this study, we demonstrate that wintertime shallow stratification and an elevated phytoplankton biomass proxy, chlorophyll, are common in the Gulf of Finland. Stratification is invoked by the westward flow of riverine water forced by an easterly wind.