Articles | Volume 12, issue 2
Research article 22 Apr 2016
Research article | 22 Apr 2016
Design and validation of MEDRYS, a Mediterranean Sea reanalysis over the period 1992–2013
Mathieu Hamon et al.
No articles found.
Guillaume Evin, Samuel Somot, and Benoit Hingray
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1543–1569,Short summary
This research paper proposes an assessment of mean climate change responses and related uncertainties over Europe for mean seasonal temperature and total seasonal precipitation. An advanced statistical approach is applied to a large ensemble of 87 high-resolution EURO-CORDEX projections. For the first time, we provide a comprehensive estimation of the relative contribution of GCMs and RCMs, RCP scenarios, and internal variability to the total variance of a very large ensemble.
Aurore Voldoire, Romain Roehrig, Hervé Giordani, Robin Waldman, Yunyan Zhang, Shaocheng Xie, and Marie-Nöelle Bouin
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
A single column version of the global climate model CNRM-CM6-1 has been designed to ease development and validation of the model physics at the air-sea interface in a simplified environment. This model is then used to assess the ability to represent the sea surface temperature diurnal cycle. We conclude that the sea surface temperature diurnal variability is reasonably well represented in CNRM-CM6-1 with a 1 h coupling time-step and the upper ocean model resolution of 1 m.
César Sauvage, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, and Marie-Noëlle Bouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11857–11887,Short summary
Air–sea processes are key elements during Mediterranean heavy precipitation events. We aim to progress in their representation in high-resolution weather forecast. Using coupled ocean–air–wave simulations, we investigated air–sea mechanisms modulated by ocean and waves during a case that occurred in southern France. Results showed significant impact of the forecast on low-level dynamics and air–sea fluxes and illustrated potential benefits of coupled numerical weather prediction systems.
Joris Pianezze, Jonathan Beuvier, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Guillaume Samson, Ghislain Faure, and Gilles Garric
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for NHESSShort summary
Most of the numerical weather and oceanic prediction systems do not consider ocean-atmosphere feedback during the forecast, while this can lead to significant forecast errors notably in cases of severe situations. A new high-resolution coupled ocean-atmosphere system is presented in this paper. This forecast-oriented system, based on current regional operational systems and evaluated using satellite and in-situ observations shows that the coupling improves both atmospheric and oceanic forecasts.
Thomas Drugé, Pierre Nabat, Marc Mallet, and Samuel Somot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7639–7669,Short summary
This study presents the surface mass concentration and AOD evolution of various aerosols over the Euro-Mediterranean region between the end of the 20th century and the mid-21st century. This study also describes the part of the expected climate change over the Euro-Mediterranean region that can be explained by the evolution of these different aerosols.
Marie-Noëlle Bouin and Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier
Ocean Sci., 16, 1125–1142,Short summary
A kilometre-scale coupled ocean–atmosphere simulation is used to study the impact of a medicane on the oceanic upper layer. The processes responsible for the surface cooling are comparable to those of weak tropical cyclones. The oceanic response is influenced by the dynamics of the central Mediterranean. In particular, a cyclonic eddy leads to weaker cooling. Heavy rain occuring early in the event creates a salinity barrier layer, reinforcing the effects of the surface fluxes on the cooling.
Pierre Nabat, Samuel Somot, Christophe Cassou, Marc Mallet, Martine Michou, Dominique Bouniol, Bertrand Decharme, Thomas Drugé, Romain Roehrig, and David Saint-Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8315–8349,Short summary
The present work aims at better understanding regional climate–aerosol interactions over the Euro-Mediterranean region by studying the relationships between aerosols and atmospheric circulation. Based on 40-year regional climate simulations (1979–2018), our results show the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in driving the interannual aerosol variability, and that of weather regimes for the daily variability, with ensuing effects on shortwave surface radiation and surface temperature.
Marie-Noëlle Bouin and Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6861–6881,Short summary
A coupled, kilometre-scale simulation of a medicane is used to assess the impact of the ocean feedback and role of surface fluxes. Sea surface temperature (SST) drop is much weaker than for tropical cyclones, resulting in no impact on the cyclone. Surface fluxes depend mainly on wind and SST for evaporation and on air temperature for sensible heat. Processes in the Mediterranean, like advection of continental air, rain evaporation and dry air intrusion, play a role in cyclone development.
Ivan Manso-Narvarte, Erick Fredj, Gabriel Jordà, Maristella Berta, Annalisa Griffa, Ainhoa Caballero, and Anna Rubio
Ocean Sci., 16, 575–591,Short summary
Our main aim is to study the feasibility of reconstructing oceanic currents by extending the data obtained from coastal multiplatform observatories to nearby areas in 3D in the SE Bay of Biscay. To that end, two different data-reconstruction methods with different approaches were tested, providing satisfactory results. This work is a first step towards the real applicability of these methods in this study area, and it shows the capabilities of the methods for a wide range of applications.
César Sauvage, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Marie-Noëlle Bouin, and Véronique Ducrocq
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1675–1699,Short summary
Air–sea exchanges during Mediterranean heavy precipitation events are key and their representation must be improved for high-resolution weather forecasts. This study investigates the mechanisms acting at the air–sea interface during a case that occurred in southern France. To focus on the impact of sea state, we developed and used an original coupled air–wave model. Results show modifications of the forecast for the air–sea fluxes, the near-surface wind and the location of precipitation.
Miguel Agulles, Gabriel Jordà, Burt Jones, Susana Agustí, and Carlos M. Duarte
Ocean Sci., 16, 149–166,Short summary
The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world, although fragile and vulnerable to ocean warming. To better understand the long-term variability and trends of temperature in the whole water column, we produce a 3-D gridded temperature product (TEMPERSEA) for the period 1958–2017, based on a large number of in situ observations, covering the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.
Thomas Drugé, Pierre Nabat, Marc Mallet, and Samuel Somot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3707–3731,Short summary
Among the different aerosols affecting the Euro-Mediterranean region, ammonium and nitrate (A&N) aerosols are expected to have a growing impact on regional climate. In this study, these aerosols have been introduced in the prognostic aerosol scheme of the ALADIN-Climate regional model. Results show that since 2005 over Europe, A&N aerosol optical depth is higher than sulfate and organics and they are responsible for a cooling of about −0.2 °C over Europe during summer.
Camille Richon, Jean-Claude Dutay, Laurent Bopp, Briac Le Vu, James C. Orr, Samuel Somot, and François Dulac
Biogeosciences, 16, 135–165,Short summary
We evaluate the effects of climate change and biogeochemical forcing evolution on the nutrient and plankton cycles of the Mediterranean Sea for the first time. We use a high-resolution coupled physical and biogeochemical model and perform 120-year transient simulations. The results indicate that changes in external nutrient fluxes and climate change may have synergistic or antagonistic effects on nutrient concentrations, depending on the region and the scenario.
Trung Nguyen-Quang, Jan Polcher, Agnès Ducharne, Thomas Arsouze, Xudong Zhou, Ana Schneider, and Lluís Fita
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4965–4985,Short summary
This study presents a revised river routing scheme for the Organising Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model. The revision is carried out to benefit from the high-resolution topography provided by the Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales (HydroSHEDS). We demonstrate that the finer description of the catchments allows for an improvement of the simulated river discharge of ORCHIDEE in an area with complex topography.
Jean-Michel Lellouche, Eric Greiner, Olivier Le Galloudec, Gilles Garric, Charly Regnier, Marie Drevillon, Mounir Benkiran, Charles-Emmanuel Testut, Romain Bourdalle-Badie, Florent Gasparin, Olga Hernandez, Bruno Levier, Yann Drillet, Elisabeth Remy, and Pierre-Yves Le Traon
Ocean Sci., 14, 1093–1126,Short summary
In the coming decades, a strong growth of the ocean economy is expected. Scientific advances in operational oceanography will play a crucial role in addressing many environmental challenges and in the development of ocean-related economic activities. In this context, remarkable improvements have been achieved with the current Mercator Ocean system. 3-D water masses, sea level, sea ice and currents have been improved, and thus major oceanic variables are hard to distinguish from the data.
Erik Kjellström, Grigory Nikulin, Gustav Strandberg, Ole Bøssing Christensen, Daniela Jacob, Klaus Keuler, Geert Lenderink, Erik van Meijgaard, Christoph Schär, Samuel Somot, Silje Lund Sørland, Claas Teichmann, and Robert Vautard
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 459–478,Short summary
Based on high-resolution regional climate models we investigate European climate change at 1.5 and 2 °C of global warming compared to pre-industrial levels. Considerable near-surface warming exceeding that of the global mean is found for most of Europe, already at the lower 1.5 °C of warming level. Changes in precipitation and near-surface wind speed are identified. The 1.5 °C of warming level shows significantly less change compared to the 2 °C level, indicating the importance of mitigation.
Aurore Voldoire, Bertrand Decharme, Joris Pianezze, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Florence Sevault, Léo Seyfried, Valérie Garnier, Soline Bielli, Sophie Valcke, Antoinette Alias, Mickael Accensi, Fabrice Ardhuin, Marie-Noëlle Bouin, Véronique Ducrocq, Stéphanie Faroux, Hervé Giordani, Fabien Léger, Patrick Marsaleix, Romain Rainaud, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, Evelyne Richard, and Sébastien Riette
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4207–4227,Short summary
This study presents the principles of the new coupling interface based on the SURFEX multi-surface model and the OASIS3-MCT coupler. As SURFEX can be plugged into several atmospheric models, it can be used in a wide range of applications. The objective of this development is to build and share a common structure for the atmosphere–surface coupling of all these applications, involving on the one hand atmospheric models and on the other hand ocean, ice, hydrology, and wave models.
Mohamed Ayache, Jean-Claude Dutay, Thomas Arsouze, Sidonie Révillon, Jonathan Beuvier, and Catherine Jeandel
Biogeosciences, 13, 5259–5276,Short summary
An extensive compilation of published neodymium (Nd) concentrations and isotopic compositions (Nd IC) was realized in order to establish a new database and a map (using a high-resolution geological map of the area) of the distribution of these parameters for all the Mediterranean margins. The use of a high-resolution regional oceanic model (1/12° of horizontal resolution) allows us to realistically simulate for the first time the Nd IC distribution in the Mediterranean Sea.
Jenny Pistoia, Nadia Pinardi, Paolo Oddo, Matthew Collins, Gerasimos Korres, and Yann Drillet
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1807–1819,Short summary
In this work we developed a new multi-model super-ensemble method to estimate sea surface temperature, an important product of ocean analysis systems. We find that ensemble size, quality, type of members and the training period length are all important elements of the MMSE methodology and require careful calibration. We show that with a rather limited but overconfident data set (with a low bias of the starting ensemble members) the RMSE analysis can be improved.
Xueming Zhu, Hui Wang, Guimei Liu, Charly Régnier, Xiaodi Kuang, Dakui Wang, Shihe Ren, Zhiyou Jing, and Marie Drévillon
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1639–1655,Short summary
This paper examined the performances of two operational ocean forecasting systems, Mercator Océan in France and SCSOFS in China, based on observed satellite and in situ data obtained in 2012. The comparison and validation are focused on the ocean circulations, the structures of temperature and salinity, and some mesoscale activities in the South China Sea. Finally, some recommendations have been proposed for both systems to improve their performances in the near future.
M. Mallet, F. Dulac, P. Formenti, P. Nabat, J. Sciare, G. Roberts, J. Pelon, G. Ancellet, D. Tanré, F. Parol, C. Denjean, G. Brogniez, A. di Sarra, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. Arndt, F. Auriol, L. Blarel, T. Bourrianne, P. Chazette, S. Chevaillier, M. Claeys, B. D'Anna, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, T. Di Iorio, J.-F. Doussin, P. Durand, A. Féron, E. Freney, C. Gaimoz, P. Goloub, J. L. Gómez-Amo, M. J. Granados-Muñoz, N. Grand, E. Hamonou, I. Jankowiak, M. Jeannot, J.-F. Léon, M. Maillé, S. Mailler, D. Meloni, L. Menut, G. Momboisse, J. Nicolas, T. Podvin, V. Pont, G. Rea, J.-B. Renard, L. Roblou, K. Schepanski, A. Schwarzenboeck, K. Sellegri, M. Sicard, F. Solmon, S. Somot, B Torres, J. Totems, S. Triquet, N. Verdier, C. Verwaerde, F. Waquet, J. Wenger, and P. Zapf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 455–504,Short summary
The aim of this article is to present an experimental campaign over the Mediterranean focused on aerosol-radiation measurements and modeling. Results indicate an important atmospheric loading associated with a moderate absorbing ability of mineral dust. Observations suggest a complex vertical structure and size distributions characterized by large aerosols within dust plumes. The radiative effect is highly variable, with negative forcing over the Mediterranean and positive over northern Africa.
A. Guyennon, M. Baklouti, F. Diaz, J. Palmieri, J. Beuvier, C. Lebaupin-Brossier, T. Arsouze, K. Béranger, J.-C. Dutay, and T. Moutin
Biogeosciences, 12, 7025–7046,Short summary
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has already been identified as a potentially significant source of carbon export in the Mediterranean Sea, though in situ export estimations are scarce. This work provides a thorough analysis at basin scale of carbon export with the coupled model NEMO-MED12/Eco3M-MED model. The seasonality and the processes of particulate and dissolved carbon production are also investigated. DOC export appears to be dominant in most regions, especially in the eastern basin.
M. Ayache, J.-C. Dutay, P. Jean-Baptiste, K. Beranger, T. Arsouze, J. Beuvier, J. Palmieri, B. Le-vu, and W. Roether
Ocean Sci., 11, 323–342,Short summary
The anthropogenic tritium invasion, and its decay product helium-3, was simulated for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, using a high-resolution regional model (NEMO-MED12). The simulation covers the entire tritium (3H) transient generated by the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s and run until 2011. The model correctly simulates the main features of the thermohaline circulation in the Mediterranean Sea, with a realistic time compared to observations.
P. Nabat, S. Somot, M. Mallet, M. Michou, F. Sevault, F. Driouech, D. Meloni, A. di Sarra, C. Di Biagio, P. Formenti, M. Sicard, J.-F. Léon, and M.-N. Bouin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3303–3326,Short summary
This paper uses an original approach based on a coupled regional aerosol--atmosphere--ocean model to study the dust radiative effects over the Mediterranean in summer 2012. After an evaluation of the prognostic aerosol scheme, the dust aerosol daily variability is shown to improve the simulated surface radiation and temperature at the daily scale. It has also a significant impact on the summer average, thus highlighting the importance of a relevant representation of aerosols in climate models.
J. Palmiéri, J. C. Orr, J.-C. Dutay, K. Béranger, A. Schneider, J. Beuvier, and S. Somot
Biogeosciences, 12, 781–802,Short summary
Different observational-based estimates of CO2 uptake and resulting acidification of the Mediterranean Sea vary widely. A new study finds that even the smallest of those are an upper limit because the approach used assumes air-sea CO2 equilibrium. Then with a lower limit from new fine-scale numerical model simulations, the authors bracket Mediterranean Sea CO2 uptake and acidification rates. They conclude that its rate of surface acidifcation is much like that for typical ocean waters.
Y. Drillet, J. M. Lellouche, B. Levier, M. Drévillon, O. Le Galloudec, G. Reffray, C. Regnier, E. Greiner, and M. Clavier
Ocean Sci., 10, 1013–1029,
Y. Tramblay, D. Ruelland, S. Somot, R. Bouaicha, and E. Servat
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3721–3739,
C. Maraldi, J. Chanut, B. Levier, N. Ayoub, P. De Mey, G. Reffray, F. Lyard, S. Cailleau, M. Drévillon, E. A. Fanjul, M. G. Sotillo, P. Marsaleix, and the Mercator Research and Development Team
Ocean Sci., 9, 745–771,
P. Nabat, S. Somot, M. Mallet, I. Chiapello, J. J. Morcrette, F. Solmon, S. Szopa, F. Dulac, W. Collins, S. Ghan, L. W. Horowitz, J. F. Lamarque, Y. H. Lee, V. Naik, T. Nagashima, D. Shindell, and R. Skeie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1287–1314,
Related subject area
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Luc Vandenbulcke and Alexander Barth
Ocean Sci., 15, 291–305,Short summary
In operational oceanography, regional and local models use large-scale models (such as those run by CMEMS) for their initial and/or boundary conditions, but unfortunately there is no feedback that improves the large-scale models. The present study aims at replacing normal two-way nesting by a data assimilation technique. This
upscalingmethod is tried out in the north-western Mediterranean Sea using the NEMO model and shows that the basin-scale model does indeed benefit from the nested model.
Jaime Hernandez-Lasheras and Baptiste Mourre
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Paolo Oddo, Andrea Storto, Srdjan Dobricic, Aniello Russo, Craig Lewis, Reiner Onken, and Emanuel Coelho
Ocean Sci., 12, 1137–1153,
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Dufau-Julliand, C., Marsaleix, P., Petrenko, A., and Dekeyser, I.: Three-dimensional modeling of the Gulf of Lion's hydrodynamics (northwest Mediterranean) during January 1999 (MOOGLI3 Experiment) and late winter 1999: Western Mediterranean Intermediate Water's (WIW's) formation and its cascading over the shelf break, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C11002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JC002019, 2004.
Durrieu de Madron, X., Hupert, L., Puig, P., Sanchez-Vidal, A., Testor, P., Bosse, A., Estournel, C., Somot, S., Bourrin, F., Bouin, M. N., Beauverger, M., Beguery, L., Calafat, A., Canals, M., Cassou, C., Coppola, L., Dausse, D., D'Ortenzio, F., Font, J., Heussner, S., Kunesch, S., Lefevre, D., Le Goff, H., Martin, J., Mortier, L., Palanques, A., and Raimbault, P.: Interaction of dense shelf water cascading and open-sea convection in the northwestern Mediterranean during winter 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1379–1385, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50331, 2013.
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Harzallah, A., Alioua, M., and Li, L.: Mass exchange at the Strait of Gibraltar in response to tidal and lower frequency forcing as simulated by a Mediterranean Sea model, Tellus A, 66, 23871, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v66.23871, 2014.
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The paper describes MEDRYS, a MEDiterranean sea ReanalYsiS at high resolution for the period 1992–2013. The NEMOMED12 ocean model is forced at the surface by a new high resolution atmospheric forcing dataset (ALDERA). Altimeter data, satellite SST and temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated. The ability of the reanalysis to represent the sea surface high-frequency variability, water mass characteristics and transports through the Strait of Gibraltar is shown.
The paper describes MEDRYS, a MEDiterranean sea ReanalYsiS at high resolution for the period...