Articles | Volume 6, issue 3
14 Jul 2010
 | 14 Jul 2010

Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air – Part 1: Background and equations

R. Feistel, D. G. Wright, D. R. Jackett, K. Miyagawa, J. H. Reissmann, W. Wagner, U. Overhoff, C. Guder, A. Feistel, and G. M. Marion

Abstract. A new seawater standard referred to as the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) was adopted in June 2009 by UNESCO/IOC on its 25th General Assembly in Paris, as recommended by the SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127 (WG127) on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater. To support the adoption process, WG127 has developed a comprehensive source code library for the thermodynamic properties of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air, referred to as the Sea-Ice-Air (SIA) library. Here we present the background information and equations required for the determination of the properties of single phases and components as well as of phase transitions and composite systems as implemented in the library. All results are based on rigorous mathematical methods applied to the Primary Standards of the constituents, formulated as empirical thermodynamic potential functions and, except for humid air, endorsed as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). Details of the implementation in the TEOS-10 SIA library are given in a companion paper.