the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Technical note: TEOS10 Excel – implementation of the Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater – 2010 in Excel
Carlos Gil Martins
Jaimie Cross
Download
 Final revised paper (published on 06 May 2022)
 Preprint (discussion started on 17 Jan 2022)
Interactive discussion
Status: closed

RC1: 'Comment on os20222', Paul Barker, 02 Feb 2022
Review of “Technical note: TEOS10 EXCEL – Implementation of the Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater – 2010 in EXCEL” by Carlos Gil Martins and Jaimie Cross.
This technical note describes the implementation of TEOS10 software in Excel. Most of the software implemented is from the GSW toolbox (McDougall and Barker, 2011), however the authors opted to adopt their own version of interpolation to compute the Absolute Sallinity Anomaly Ratio that is used in the calulation of Absolute Salinity.
The note is well written and contains sufficient detail to inform the reader what it contains and how to use the software.
General point
Note that the correct capitalisation is Absolute Salinity, Practical Salinity, Reference Salinity and Conservative Temperature.
Detailed points.
Line 46
Delete “If”
Line 54
The subscript P in S_{P} should not be italic.
Line 60 (also applies to line 11)
The estimation of Absolute Salinity in the GSW is done through a lookup table but it can be measured directly with the aid of a densimeter.
Line 61
TEOS10 for excel is included in Jiang et al (2022).
I am not sure if the authors are aware that there is a Visual Basic version of SeawaterIceAir (SIA) library which includes some of the GSW functions. The SIA software is available from http://www.teos10.org/software.htm#2
Lines 114– 115
The temperature acronym for temperature 68 appears as ITS68 it should be IPTS68.
Line 130
If the data is not in the ocean then the Absolute Salinity value returned should be equal to the Reference Salinity, then the other values can be computed.
Section 2.4 SACT diagram
Looking at the code, I think the sigma contour that is being plotted is sigma0. Section 3.10 confirms this, σ_{0} is generally the standard notation for sigma0.
Section 3.1 SP_from_C
It would be great to include the low salinity (0 2) extension to this function that is included in the GSW version of this software.
Section 3.3.1 Interpolation
Do you ensure that no interpolation occurs for the grids the span the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, across the Panama Canal?
Section 3.3.2
It would have been great if you let the McDougall and Barker know about the missing values in the lookup table. I know that they would be eager to correct this.
References
Jiang LQ, Pierrot D, Wanninkhof R, Feely RA, Tilbrook B, Alin S, Barbero L, Byrne RH, Carter BR, Dickson AG, Gattuso JP, Greeley D, Hoppema M, Humphreys MP, Karstensen J, Lange N, Lauvset SK, Lewis ER, Olsen A, Pérez FF, Sabine C, Sharp JD, Tanhua T, Trull TW, Velo A, Allegra AJ, Barker P, Burger E, Cai WJ, Chen CTA, Cross J, Garcia H, HernandezAyon JM, Hu X, Kozyr A, Langdon C, Lee K, Salisbury J, Wang ZA and Xue L (2022) Best Practice Data Standards for Discrete Chemical Oceanographic Observations. Front. Mar. Sci. 8:705638. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.705638
McDougall, T.J. and Barker, P.M. (2011) Getting started with TEOS10 and the Gibbs Seawater (GSW) Oceanographic Toolbox, 28pp., SCOR/IAPSO WG127, ISBN 9780646556215,

AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Carlos Martins, 04 Feb 2022
The Reviewer comments are included velow in plain text, followed by the authors reply in bold.
Review of “Technical note: TEOS10 EXCEL – Implementation of the Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater – 2010 in EXCEL” by Carlos Gil Martins and Jaimie Cross.
This technical note describes the implementation of TEOS10 software in Excel. Most of the software implemented is from the GSW toolbox (McDougall and Barker, 2011), however the authors opted to adopt their own version of interpolation to compute the Absolute Salinity Anomaly Ratio that is used in the calculation of Absolute Salinity.
The note is well written and contains sufficient detail to inform the reader what it contains and how to use the software.
Many thanks for your comment, we are pleased to hear this.
General point
Note that the correct capitalisation is Absolute Salinity, Practical Salinity, Reference Salinity and Conservative Temperature.
We have now corrected this along the manuscript (capitalising and removing the italics). We applied the same to Absolute Salinity Anomaly and to Absolute Salinity Anomaly Ratio. Other physical parameters (e.g., pressure, density) were also unitalicized but not capitalised.
Detailed points.
Line 46
Delete “If”
‘If’ at the beginning of sentence has been deleted and ‘but’ added in Line 47. The corrected sentence is as follows:
The concept of pressure and temperature have remained pretty much unaltered over time (although the temperature standard changed in 1989 from IPTS68 to ITS90 (PrestonThomas, 1990)), but the definition of salinity has suffered significative variations during the last century (Millero, 2010).
Line 54
The subscript P in S_{P} should not be italic.
Corrected. All other instances of S_{P} have also been corrected.
Line 60 (also applies to line 11)
The estimation of Absolute Salinity in the GSW is done through a lookup table but it can be measured directly with the aid of a densimeter.
We accept the suggestion, although we have rewritten this in a slightly different way (below), to include a further modification, driven by your following comment.
Line 61
Direct measurement of Absolute Salinity can be made with the aid of a densimeter (IOC, SCOR and IAPSO, 2010: 82), but in GSW it is estimated from interpolation of measured Absolute Salinity Anomalies stored in a world atlas lookup table. This difficulty might be a possible explanation for the absence of any previous application of TEOS10 in EXCEL, except for a tool (GSW_Sys_v1.0.xlsm)^{1} cited in Jiang et al. (2022). That implementation of the GSW however, does not include the atlas lookup tables, using constant values of Absolute Salinity Anomaly across the major oceanic basins. We have tested this EXCEL tool, using the two data sets included in TEOS10 EXCEL (TEOS10 Test Data and TS55) and, for both data sets (NW Pacific and NE Atlantic respectively), there were differences on the estimation of Absolute Salinity, starting at the 4^{th} decimal place (positive and negative). As discussed in Sect. (3.), the results from TEOS10 EXCEL are the same, for every parameter (up to 15 decimal places), as the ones obtained with the GSW toolbox.
^{1} https://github.com/dpierrot/GSW_Sys
Line 11 edit:
Absolute Salinity can be directly measured with the aid of a densimeter (IOC, SCOR and IAPSO, 2010: 82), but in TEOS10 its estimation relies on the interpolation of data from casts of seawater from the world ocean (IOC, SCOR and IAPSO, 2010),
Line 61
TEOS10 for excel is included in Jiang et al (2022).
We have addressed this above.
I am not sure if the authors are aware that there is a Visual Basic version of SeawaterIceAir (SIA) library which includes some of the GSW functions. The SIA software is available from http://www.teos10.org/software.htm#2
We were aware, but our initial motivation was in trying to implement the lookup tables in EXCEL, something that had not been done before. We then continued, translating the necessary functions from MATLAB. It perhaps would have been easier to use some of the above!
Lines 114– 115
The temperature acronym for temperature 68 appears as ITS68 it should be IPTS68.
A typo that has been corrected.
Line 130
If the data is not in the ocean then the Absolute Salinity value returned should be equal to the Reference Salinity, then the other values can be computed.
Apologies, we’re not sure what you mean here  if coordinates are on land (probably a user input mistake), then there would be no need to compute any parameters; however, we suspect this may not be what you are asking! We are happy to try and address your comment with some clarification.
Section 2.4 SACT diagram
Looking at the code, I think the sigma contour that is being plotted is sigma0. Section 3.10 confirms this, σ_{0} is generally the standard notation for sigma0.
Sigmat (σ_{t} = (ρ (S_{A},t,0) – 1000 kg m^{–3}) has been traditionally the standard oceanographic notation_{}for density for a parcel of seawater not considering pressure (i.e., p = 0 dbar). The “Recommended Symbols and Units in Oceanography” (table L.1, pg. 167 of the TEOS10 Manual) are σ_{2} for a reference pressure of 2000 dbar, σ_{4} for a reference pressure of 4000 dbar, but for p = 0 dbar it maintains the index ‘t’, not 0, although having it as superscript (σ^{t}) instead of the traditional subscript.
In the SACT diagram we have represented the density field with sigma calculated from Conservative Temperature instead of temperature (ρ (S_{A},Θ,0) – 1000 kg m^{–3}) for consistency with the S_{A} – Θ diagrams, and our opinion is that σ_{Θ} should be the correct symbol as an indication that Conservative Temperature was used (and not temperature). We have now realised, though, that the correct quantity should be ‘Conservative density anomaly’ (to be distinguished from ‘Potential density anomaly’ which uses potential temperature as input), so we will replace ‘Potential’ by ‘Conservative’ in Sect. 3.10 and in the Abstract (L 9 “conservative density (σ_{Θ})”). Note that this quantity (conservative density) is not listed or mentioned in the TEOS10 manual.
Section 3.1 SP_from_C
It would be great to include the low salinity (0 2) extension to this function that is included in the GSW version of this software.
Many thanks for your suggestion, we agree. We will include in the manuscript a new section (Sect 2.6) regarding future software updates:
2.6 Version updates
Next version of TEOS10 EXCEL (version 1.1, in development) will include an additional spreadsheet tab listing all released versions and the respective applied updates. Some improvements already identified and planned to be incorporated are:
 Practical Salinity from conductivity function: inclusion of the low salinity (02) extension available in GSW.
 GSW does not perform interpolation for grids spanning the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, across the Panama Canal. This is not dealt with in the current version but will be addressed in version 1.1.
 An additional column for depth (m) will be included in the data spreadsheets and functions for converting pressure to depth and viceversa will be included, allowing the alternative input of pressure or depth.
Section 3.3.1 Interpolation
Do you ensure that no interpolation occurs for the grids the span the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, across the Panama Canal?
As per our answer to the previous comment, we acknowledge that this is not addressed by the current version but will be corrected in the next version.
Section 3.3.2
It would have been great if you let the McDougall and Barker know about the missing values in the lookup table. I know that they would be eager to correct this.
Having the lookup tables as EXCEL spreadsheets turns to be a fantastic way of looking at the data and visually detect where the missing values are. This makes browsing the two lookup tables [deltaSA_ref] and [SAAR_ref] and locating gaps in the data much easier. The grid location of each column and depth bin (spreadsheet lines) is described in Sect. 2.5.
References
Jiang LQ, Pierrot D, Wanninkhof R, Feely RA, Tilbrook B, Alin S, Barbero L, Byrne RH, Carter BR, Dickson AG, Gattuso JP, Greeley D, Hoppema M, Humphreys MP, Karstensen J, Lange N, Lauvset SK, Lewis ER, Olsen A, Pérez FF, Sabine C, Sharp JD, Tanhua T, Trull TW, Velo A, Allegra AJ, Barker P, Burger E, Cai WJ, Chen CTA, Cross J, Garcia H, HernandezAyon JM, Hu X, Kozyr A, Langdon C, Lee K, Salisbury J, Wang ZA and Xue L (2022) Best Practice Data Standards for Discrete Chemical Oceanographic Observations. Front. Mar. Sci. 8:705638. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.705638
Reference added in the required OS format:
Jiang L.Q., Pierrot D., Wanninkhof R., Feely R.A., Tilbrook B., Alin S., Barbero L., Byrne R.H., Carter B.R., Dickson A.G., Gattuso J.P., Greeley D., Hoppema M., Humphreys M.P., Karstensen J., Lange N., Lauvset S.K., Lewis E.R., Olsen A., Pérez F.F., Sabine C., Sharp J.D., Tanhua T., Trull T.W., Velo A., Allegra A.J., Barker P., Burger E., Cai W.J., Chen C.T.A., Cross J., Garcia H., HernandezAyon J.M., Hu X., Kozyr A., Langdon C., Lee K., Salisbury J., Wang Z.A., and Xue L.: Best Practice Data Standards for Discrete Chemical Oceanographic Observations. Front. Mar. Sci. 8:705638. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.705638, 2022.
McDougall, T.J. and Barker, P.M. (2011) Getting started with TEOS10 and the Gibbs Seawater (GSW) Oceanographic Toolbox, 28pp., SCOR/IAPSO WG127, ISBN 9780646556215,
This reference was already included in the original manuscript.

RC2: 'Reply on AC1', Paul Barker, 07 Feb 2022
Line 130 continuation.
The TEOS10 equations can be applied everywhere on the globe not just in the open ocean. Imagine someone collects a water sample from a lake or a river that is hundred of km’s from the coast, ie. itswell and truly inland. In this case the GSW software sets the Absolute Salinity Anomaly to zero, and the Absolute Salinity is equal to the Reference Salinity. They can then use the TEOS10 equations to calculate any of their sample’s properties they want.

AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Carlos Martins, 18 Feb 2022
We have just published an update of TEOS10 EXCEL (v.1.1) to address this issue (inland/coastal locations). Now, by leaving the Longitude or Latitude cells empty, will set Absolute Salinity Anomaly to zero, S_{A} becomes equal to S_{R} and the other sample’s properties are calculated.
This new version also includes the update of the 'Practical Salinity from conductivity' function, to include the low salinity (02) extension (VBA module {Hill_ratio_at_SP2(t)}). The VBA module {SP_from_C (C, t, p)} is now a full translation of the GSW counterpart. This 'new' module has been tested with values of S_{P} > 2 and between 0 and 2 and the results are the same as the ones obtained with GSW MATLAB.
We have also added a new spreadsheet tab (‘Info’) to capture all version updates.
The following DOI represents all versions and will always resolve to the latest one, so it is preferable to use it instead of the former (which in any case also shows the latest version available, but points to a specific version).
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4748829
We will amend the manuscript to reflect the above updates and post the intended alterations as soon as possible.

AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Carlos Martins, 18 Feb 2022

AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Carlos Martins, 04 Feb 2022

CC1: 'Comment on os20222', Richard Pawlowicz, 18 Feb 2022
The authors have developed an Excel spreadsheet with VBA macros that implements
a small subset of the TEOS10 software library availabled as the Gibbs Seawater (GSW) toolbox.
This is a great thing to have around, and something that has been on a 'wishlist'
by the Joint Committee on the Properties of Seawater (JCS) for a long time.In general, I would be happy to see this published. But I do have some concerns,
as well as minor corrections.1) My first concern is related to the fact that only a small subset of GSW is implemented.
Obviously the whole tooblox is immense and (mostly) not needed, but I suggest adding
a table to the paper listing exactly which GSW functions are implemented in macros.
I could puzzle this out by opening up the macros (and sections 3.13.13 cover this material),
but this information is then scattered over many pages.2) Also I note that what you apparently call 'SP_from_C' is not at all gsw_SP_from_C. I see
from your reply to an earlier comment that you want to 'leave this for the future', about
which I am not really very enthusiastic. I'd rather this was fixed now, as it is unlikely
that a future software update will be matched with a future documentation update like this
paper.Part of my reasoning for suggesting this get fixed now is that I can see an important
audience for this EXCEL sheet are limnologists, many of whom are not very computational,
but may want to see if TEOS10 will help them. However, for them the lowfrequency
correction is pretty important.3) So, in particular, I think you need to note explicitly in the text that the
practicalsalinityfromconductivity algorithm is NOT as in GSW, and exactly
how it is different.4) This point is less of a concern with the work itself rather than a suggestion. I can
see that one very useful target audience for this are people (e.g., lab technicians)
using salinometers, as they are much more likely to be familiar with EXCEL than with programming
languages. A salinometer does not actually calculate the conductivity, instead it calculates
a conductivity ratio (see gsw_SP_salinometer), which should then be the 'entry point' into
calculations.I urge you to consider adding this functionality  perhaps in another tab somewhat
like the 'surface data' tab but which takes salinometer readings.5) I am not sure how difficult this is, but in many cases it is actually useful to set the
salinity anomaly to zero and essentially use Reference Salinity to compute density.
In many coastal areas, for example, the lookup table is not at all accurate as it contains
no information on river salts, and so its probably better to ignore anomaly calculations
completely. This is also true for inland waters.One might, for example, set up the sheets to do this if no Lat/Long is entered, or
if some explicit value (e.g., 999) is entered.
Minor points:
L8 "in EXCEL to estimate Absolute Salinity...."(also note that TEOS10 definitions like Absolute Salinity, Conservative Temperature, etc.
should be capitalized  I think this is just repeating an earlier comment.)
L27 "to facilitate the efficient calculation of the properties...."
L3033: the GSW software is available in many programming languages other than MATLAB, so
your statement is not quite correct. However, it is true that many practitioners might not
be familiar with ANY programming language, so this EXCEL implement is definitely fuilling a need.
L4244. It is NOT CORRECT that the properties related to the chosen variables (salinity, temperature,
and pressure) must be conservative for thermodynamics to apply. In fact, they are not! It is
certainly useful for numerical modelling purposes if chosen variables can be written in such a way
that they are conservative under mixing, but this has nothing to do with the thermodynamic
state of the fluid itself.In fact, the choice of S/T/p as state descriptions is useful in that these are measureable
variables and are natural for a Gibbs function description of the state.This sentence should probably be removed.
L46: this is a little trivial, but temperature standards have also changed over
time  before IPTS68 there were a number of other standards  so it is not true that
the concept has remained 'unaltered over time'.
L4748. Technically, absolute salinities (lower case) are mass fraction definitions. However,
Absolute Salinity S_A (capitalized as defined in TEOS10) is actually "the mass fraction of dissolved
material in Reference Composition Seawater of the same density as that of the sample" (it
is in fact a density salinity). Yes, this is complicated and confusing.
L53: S_A and CT are natural arguments into a simpler and more computationally efficient 75term
density/specific volume equation by Roquet et al. (2015), which can be used to derive some (but
not all) other thermodynamic properties, although the best reference is still the TEOS10 Gibbs
function.
L101: Maybe clarify that pressure is "sea pressure, i.e. absolute pressure  10.1325 dbar".L203: the [AltF11] is probably a Windowsspecific command. It doesn't work for Excel on Macs.
L210: It is not exactly true that the conductivity of SSW at standard conditions is 42.9140 mS/cm.
This is in fact a number which a) has never been replicated, and b) is more accurate than we
can realistically measure conductivity. So, it is perhaps more true to say that the software
is designed so that by definition the conductivity of Reference Composition Seawater with
S_P=35 is 42.9140 mS/cm at standard conditions.
AC4: 'Reply on CC1', Carlos Martins, 03 Mar 2022
Richard Pawlowicz comments are included below in plain text, followed by the authors reply in bold.
The authors have developed an Excel spreadsheet with VBA macros that implements a small subset of the TEOS10 software library available as the Gibbs Seawater (GSW) toolbox.
This is a great thing to have around, and something that has been on a 'wishlist' by the Joint Committee on the Properties of Seawater (JCS) for a long time.In general, I would be happy to see this published. But I do have some concerns,
as well as minor corrections.1) My first concern is related to the fact that only a small subset of GSW is implemented.
Obviously the whole tooblox is immense and (mostly) not needed, but I suggest adding a table to the paper listing exactly which GSW functions are implemented in macros. I could puzzle this out by opening up the macros (and sections 3.13.13 cover this material), but this information is then scattered over many pages.From the outset, our objective was not to develop a full Excel implementation of the GSW toolbox. We welcome your suggestion, however, and we will add a table listing all VBA modules (table attached to our Author's post https://doi.org/10.5194/os20222AC3).
2) Also I note that what you apparently call 'SP_from_C' is not at all gsw_SP_from_C. I see from your reply to an earlier comment that you want to 'leave this for the future', about which I am not really very enthusiastic. I'd rather this was fixed now, as it is unlikely that a future software update will be matched with a future documentation update like this paper.
Part of my reasoning for suggesting this get fixed now is that I can see an important audience for this EXCEL sheet are limnologists, many of whom are not very computational, but may want to see if TEOS10 will help them. However, for them the lowfrequency correction is pretty important.
The 0 < S_{P} < 2 correction has now been included in version 2.0 (see our author’s post). The former ‘SP_from_C’ function included was replaced by a direct translation of the GSW counterpart.
3) So, in particular, I think you need to note explicitly in the text that the practicalsalinityfromconductivity algorithm is NOT as in GSW, and exactly
how it is different.As per the comment above, we are confident that the practicalsalinityfromconductivity algorithm is now the same.
4) This point is less of a concern with the work itself rather than a suggestion. I can see that one very useful target audience for this are people (e.g., lab technicians)
using salinometers, as they are much more likely to be familiar with EXCEL than with programming languages. A salinometer does not actually calculate the conductivity, instead it calculates a conductivity ratio (see gsw_SP_salinometer), which should then be the 'entry point' into calculations.I urge you to consider adding this functionality  perhaps in another tab somewhat
like the 'surface data' tab but which takes salinometer readings.Thankyou for highlighting this. The Practical Salinity from the conductivity Ratio is now included in v2.0.
5) I am not sure how difficult this is, but in many cases it is actually useful to set the
salinity anomaly to zero and essentially use Reference Salinity to compute density.
In many coastal areas, for example, the lookup table is not at all accurate as it contains no information on river salts, and so it’s probably better to ignore anomaly calculations completely. This is also true for inland waters. One might, for example, set up the sheets to do this if no Lat/Long is entered, or if some explicit value (e.g., 999) is entered.This has now been fixed. Leaving the Lat/Long cells empty will set the salinity anomaly to zero, Absolute Salinity = Reference Salinity, with all other parameters estimated.
Minor points:
L8 "in EXCEL to estimate Absolute Salinity...."
(also note that TEOS10 definitions like Absolute Salinity, Conservative Temperature, etc. should be capitalized  I think this is just repeating an earlier comment.)
Yes, thank you, we will correct this.
L27 "to facilitate the efficient calculation of the properties...."Noted and accepted.
L3033: the GSW software is available in many programming languages other than MATLAB, so your statement is not quite correct. However, it is true that many practitioners might not be familiar with ANY programming language, so this EXCEL implement is definitely fulfilling a need.Thankyou for highlighting this. The text has been changed to:
…implements the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 (TEOS10) into software that calculates required seawater properties through the utilisation of programming languages (e.g., MATLAB, FORTRAN, C) that require a working understanding and knowledge of computer programming.
L4244. It is NOT CORRECT that the properties related to the chosen variables (salinity, temperature, and pressure) must be conservative for thermodynamics to apply. In fact, they are not! It is certainly useful for numerical modelling purposes if chosen variables can be written in such a way that they are conservative under mixing, but this has nothing to do with the thermodynamic state of the fluid itself. In fact, the choice of S/T/p as state descriptions is useful in that these are measurable variables and are natural for a Gibbs function description of the state.
This sentence should probably be removed.
Thankyou for correcting this. The sentence in question has been removed from the manuscript.
L46: this is a little trivial, but temperature standards have also changed over time  before IPTS68 there were a number of other standards  so it is not true that the concept has remained 'unaltered over time'.
As measurement technologies advance and our understanding of the oceanic environment evolves, standards relating to physical parameters frequently change in response. The definition of salinity has undergone several variations during the last century (Millero, 2010) and the temperature standard changed in 1989 from IPTS68 to ITS90 (PrestonThomas, 1990).
L4748. Technically, absolute salinities (lower case) are mass fraction definitions. However,
Absolute Salinity S_A (capitalized as defined in TEOS10) is actually "the mass fraction of dissolved material in Reference Composition Seawater of the same density as that of the sample" (it is in fact a density salinity). Yes, this is complicated and confusing.Thankyou for pointing this out. We have incorporated this correction into the revised sentence, as follows:
The current Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater  2010 (TEOS10) has introduced a new salinity quantity, Absolute Salinity (S_{A}), defined as “the mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater” (IOC, SCOR and IAPSO, 2010: 3); however, Absolute Salinity is arguably more accurately defined as the mass fraction of dissolved material in Reference Composition Seawater of the same density as that of the sample (Wright et al., 2011).
Wright, D. G., Pawlowicz, R., McDougall, T. J., Feistel, R., and Marion, G. M.: Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the ReferenceComposition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS10, Ocean Sci., 7, 1–26, https://doi.org/10.5194/os712011, 2011.
L53: S_A and CT are natural arguments into a simpler and more computationally efficient 75term density/specific volume equation by Roquet et al. (2015), which can be used to derive some (but not all) other thermodynamic properties, although the best reference is still the TEOS10 Gibbs function.Our intention is to inform that SA and CT are the arguments to be used in the estimation of the other thermodynamic properties. As such, we are confident that the following sentence adequately explains this:
These two new quantities, S_{A} and Θ, together with pressure (p), are now the arguments of the equation of state, and to compute any thermodynamic property of seawater (e.g., density, sound speed) they must be estimated first.
L101: Maybe clarify that pressure is "sea pressure, i.e. absolute pressure  10.1325 dbar".
We will add:
For what concerns seawater properties, pressure is always the pressure of the water column, i.e., absolute pressure subtracted by atmospheric pressure. Therefore, at the surface, p = 0. For the upper ocean, 10 dbar ≈ 10 m.
L203: the [AltF11] is probably a Windowsspecific command. It doesn't work for Excel on Macs.
This is also referred in L77.
L77:
Pressing [Alt + F11] (Windows) or [Fn + Alt + F11] (Mac) opens the VBA environment allowing access to the 15 function modules (table 1), although access to these is not required to make use of the Workbook, nor is a working knowledge of VBA.
L203:
As referred before, access to the VBA project environment can be obtained by pressing [Alt + F11] (Windows) or [Fn + Alt + F11] (Mac). All functions (alphabetically listed in table 1) are described next, following the spreadsheet’s column sequence.
L210: It is not exactly true that the conductivity of SSW at standard conditions is 42.9140 mS/cm. This is in fact a number which a) has never been replicated, and b) is more accurate than we can realistically measure conductivity. So, it is perhaps more true to say that the software is designed so that by definition the conductivity of Reference Composition Seawater with S_P=35 is 42.9140 mS/cm at standard conditions.
Thankyou for this observation. We agree, so the sentence has been rephrased to:
For reference, the calculation algorithm is designed so that the conductivity of Reference Composition Seawater at S_{P }= 35, t_{68 }= 15, p = 0 is 42.9140 mS cm^{1}, which can be used to validate the function.

AC4: 'Reply on CC1', Carlos Martins, 03 Mar 2022

AC3: 'Comment on os20222', Carlos Martins, 03 Mar 2022
We are extremely pleased with the positive response this manuscript has received so far, and comments like “this is a great thing to have around, and something that has been on a 'wishlist' by the Joint Committee on the Properties of Seawater (JCS) for a long time” from Richard Pawlowicz, are always good to hear. A few suggestions for improvement of the software have been made, some of which were already in our plans (and others still are), and since the initial submission of the manuscript we were able to update and upgrade the software twice, having now published TEOS10 EXCEL v2.0. The new functionalities added (which will be addressed in the revised version of the manuscript) are listed below.
A table listing all VBA modules will be included in the final version of the manuscript (attached).
V2.0 (22/02/2022) https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4748829
 The calculation of Practical Salinity from the Conductivity Ratio (output from laboratory Salinometers) is now supported. This led to a substantial upgrade of the input template with the addition of a group of radio buttons for selecting the input salinity (Practical Salinity, Conductivity or Conductivity Ratio) and another group of radio buttons for temperature selection between ITS90 or IPTS68.
V1.1 (18/02/2022)
 New Info tab listing all released versions of TEOS10 EXCEL and providing detailed information on the updates included in each version.
 Leaving the Longitude or Latitude cells empty sets Absolute Salinity Anomaly to zero. This is useful for inland and coastal waters where it is recommended to ignore salinity anomalies.
 For inland locations, Absolute Salinity Anomaly is zero and S_{A} is set equal to S_{R}. Thermodynamic properties are calculated accordingly, considering in this way valid inland measures (e.g., rivers, lakes); previous versions displayed 'NOT in OCEAN' for Absolute Salinity Anomaly and no further calculations were performed.
 Function Hill_ratio_at_SP2(t) was added (translated from GSW). This function corrects the value of S_{P} for S_{P} < 2 based on the Hill et al. (1986) algorithm. This algorithm is adjusted so that it is exactly equal to the PSS78 algorithm at S_{P} = 2.

AC5: 'Comment on os20222', Carlos Martins, 03 Mar 2022
Apart from the corrections incorporated in our replies to comments, as new functionalities have been added to TEOS10 EXCEL following the suggestions received, a rewriting of some parts of the manuscript was needed to accommodate the upgrades. The attached file contains the revised writing, which will be included in the manuscript.

AC6: 'Comment on os20222', Carlos Martins, 09 Mar 2022
We have updated the software to version 2.1 which now includes calculation of Practical Salinity from the conductivity ratio measured by a laboratory salinometer (Rt). The salinity input radio buttons were modified accordingly (figure below).
The conductivity ratio function added in v.2.0 {SP_from_R(R, t, p) } calculates Practical Salinity from the conductivity ratio (R), of a sample at temperature (t), and pressure (p) relative to SSW at t=15 °C and p=0, which is not the conductivity ratio measured by a laboratory salinometer, where both the sample and the reference SSW are at the same temperature. The function for computing Practical Salinity from the salinometer ratio (Rt) has been now added {SP_salinometer(Rt, t)}, where 't' is the temperature of the salinometer thermostable bath.
The attached file includes the necessary manuscript ammendements to reflect the above updates, including updates of table 1 and figs. 1 and 2.

RC3: 'Comment on os20222', Trevor McDougall, 17 Mar 2022
Dear Carlos et al.,
Please note that the comment on your paper by Rich Pawlowicz is actually a "referee comment", so your paper has in fact been reviewed by two reviewers (Paul Barker and Rich Pawlowicz). I am posting this as a "referee Comment" so that the computer system will then tell me (as editor) that the paper has received two reviews, and we can proceed with it.
I have read both reviews, and your several replies to these reviews, and I recommend acceptance of this OSD manuscript, so it proceeds for typesetting and publication in Ocean Science. Well done.
I have one minor comment. I read that, at least at one stage, you were concerned with the words "potential density" and thought that it should perhaps be called "conservative density". I disagree. The word "potential" in "potential density" refers to the density and not to the temperature that is used to evaluate the density. A "potential density" is calculated by doing a thought experiment where an insulating bag is placed around a seawater parcel and its pressure is changed. The "potential density" is the density of the seawater parcel at the new pressure. This value of density can be calculated either as rho_twiddle(SA,pt,p_ref) or as rho_hat(SA,CT,P_ref). The answers are the same whether potential temperature, pt, or Conservative Temperature, CT, is used in these two different polynomial expressions.
Well done, and I look forward to seeing this manuscript published.

AC7: 'Reply on RC3', Carlos Martins, 17 Mar 2022
Dear Trevor,
We are extremely pleased with the outcome of the manuscript submission and with the whole review process that was enlightening and pushed us to improve the software. We believe that both the software and the paper are now much better.
Regarding your comment on ‘potential density’ we agree, as that was the term we have originally used in the manuscript, and actually, we have kept it in the EXCEL spreadsheet’s column heading. The change to ‘conservative density’ arose from the discussion, to reflect that in TEOS10 EXCEL it is calculated using the Conservative Temperature and not the ‘in situ temperature’, but as you well say, that shouldn’t impact the fact that ‘potential’ is related to the density (in contrast with ‘in situ density’) and not to the temperature parameter used in the function.
We will use ‘potential density’ throughout the manuscript.
Thank you again for the positive review.

AC7: 'Reply on RC3', Carlos Martins, 17 Mar 2022