Articles | Volume 6, issue 3
Ocean Sci., 6, 695–718, 2010

Special issue: Thermophysical properties of seawater

Ocean Sci., 6, 695–718, 2010

  16 Jul 2010

16 Jul 2010

Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air – Part 2: The library routines

D. G. Wright1,†, R. Feistel2, J. H. Reissmann3, K. Miyagawa4, D. R. Jackett5, W. Wagner6, U. Overhoff6, C. Guder6, A. Feistel7, and G. M. Marion8 D. G. Wright et al.
  • 1Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2, Canada
  • 2Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung, Seestraße 15, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany
  • 3Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, Bernhard-Nocht-Straße 78, 20359 Hamburg, Germany
  • 44-12-11-628, Nishiogu, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo, 116-0011, Japan
  • 5CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 1538, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
  • 6Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, 44780 Bochum, Germany
  • 7Technische Universität Berlin, Einsteinufer 25, 10587 Berlin, Germany
  • 8Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, USA
  • Dan Wright passed away on 8 July 2010

Abstract. The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS–10) was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official replacement and extension of the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. As part of this new standard a source code package has been prepared that is now made freely available to users via the World Wide Web. This package includes two libraries referred to as the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air) library and the GSW (Gibbs SeaWater) library. Information on the GSW library may be found on the TEOS-10 web site ( This publication provides an introduction to the SIA library which contains routines to calculate various thermodynamic properties as discussed in the companion paper. The SIA library is very comprehensive, including routines to deal with fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air as well as equilibrium states involving various combinations of these, with equivalent code developed in different languages. The code is hierachically structured in modules that support (i) almost unlimited extension with respect to additional properties or relations, (ii) an extraction of self-contained sub-libraries, (iii) separate updating of the empirical thermodynamic potentials, and (iv) code verification on different platforms and between different languages. Error trapping is implemented to identify when one or more of the primary routines are accessed significantly beyond their established range of validity. The initial version of the SIA library is available in Visual Basic and FORTRAN as a supplement to this publication and updates will be maintained on the TEOS-10 web site.

1SCOR/IAPSO: Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research/International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans
2IOC/UNESCO: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization