Electrochemical techniques and sensors for ocean research
Abstract. This paper presents a review of applications of electrochemical methods in ocean sensing. It follows the white paper presented at the OceanSensors08 workshop held at the Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung, Warnemünde, Germany, from 31 March to 4 April 2008. The principles of electrochemical techniques are briefly recalled and described. For each technique, relevant electrochemical sensors are discussed; known successful deployments of electrochemical sensors are recalled; challenges experienced when taking sensors from the research lab to the field are raised; future trends in development and applications are proposed and assessed for their potential for oceanographic applications; where possible technological readiness levels are estimated. The document is supported with references drawn from both the electrochemical and oceanographic literature.