Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2021-125
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2021-125
 
20 Jan 2022
20 Jan 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal OS and is expected to appear here in due course.

Coastal Sea Level Monitoring in the Mediterranean and Black Seas

Begoña Pérez Gómez1, Ivica Vilibić2, Jadranka Šepić3, Iva Međugorac4, Matjaž Ličer5, Laurent Testut6, Claire Fraboul7, Marta Marcos8, Hassen Abdellaoui9, Enrique Álvarez Fanjul1, Darko Barbalić10, Benjamín Casas11, Antonio Castaño-Tierno12, Srđan Čupić13, Aldo Drago14, María Ángeles Fraile15, Daniele A. Galliano16, Adam Gauci14, Branislav Gloginja17, Víctor Martín Guijarro15, Maja Jeromel5, Marcos Larrad Revuelto18, Ayah Lazar19, Ibrahim Haktan Keskin20, Igor Medvedev21, Abdelkader Menassri9, Mohamed A. Meslem9, Hrvoje Mihanović22, Sara Morucci23, Dragos Niculescu24, José Manuel Quijano de Benito18, Josep Pascual25, Atanas Palazov26, Marco Picone23, Fabio Raicich27, Mohamed Said28, Jordi Salat29, Erdinc Sezen20, Mehmet Simav20, Georgios Sylaios30, Elena Tel12, Joaquín Tintoré11, Klodian Zaimi31, and George Zodiatis32,33,34 Begoña Pérez Gómez et al.
  • 1Puertos del Estado, Madrid, Spain
  • 2Ruđer Bošković Institute, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb, Croatia
  • 3Faculty of Science, University of Split, Split, Croatia
  • 4University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Geophysics, Zagreb, Croatia
  • 5Slovenian Environment Agency, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 6LIENSs, CNRS - La Rochelle University, La Rochelle, France
  • 7SHOM, Brest, France
  • 8Department of Physics, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
  • 9National Institute of Cartography and Remote Sensing, Algiers, Algeria
  • 10Croatian Waters, Zagreb, Croatia
  • 11SOCIB -Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System-, Palma, 07122, Spain
  • 12Spanish Institute of Oceanography, Madrid, Spain
  • 13Hydrographic Institute of the Republic of Croatia, Split, Croatia
  • 14University of Malta, Department of Geosciences, Oceanography Malta Group, Msida, Malta
  • 15National Geographic Institute, Madrid, Spain
  • 16Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy
  • 17Hydrometeorological and Seismological Service, Podgorica, Montenegro
  • 18Spanish Hydrographic Office, Cádiz, Spain
  • 19Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel
  • 20General Directorate of Mapping, Department of Geodesy, Ankara, Türkiye
  • 21PP Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Moscow, Russia
  • 22Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, Croatia
  • 23ISPRA - Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, Roma, Italy
  • 24National Institute for Marine Research and Development “Grigore Antipa”, Constanța, Romania
  • 25L’Estartit Meteorological Station, Gerona, Spain
  • 26Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Varna, Bulgaria
  • 27CNR, Institute of Marine Sciences, Trieste, Italy
  • 28National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt
  • 29CSIC, Institute of Marine Sciences, Barcelona, Spain
  • 30Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece
  • 31National Centre for Forecast and Monitoring of Natural Risks, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania
  • 32ORION Research, Nicosia, Cyprus
  • 33Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Heraklion, Greece
  • 34University of Cyprus, Cyprus Oceanography Centre, Nicosia, Cyprus

Abstract. Spanning over a century, a traditional way to monitor sea level variability by tide gauges is – in combination with modern observational techniques like satellite altimetry – an inevitable ingredient in sea level studies over the climate scales and in coastal seas. The development of the instrumentation, remote data acquisition, processing and archiving in last decades allowed for extending the applications towards a variety of users and coastal hazard managers. The Mediterranean and Black seas are an example for such a transition – while having a long tradition for sea level observations with several records spanning over a century, the number of modern tide gauge stations are growing rapidly, with data available both in real-time and as a research product at different time resolutions. As no comprehensive survey of the tide gauge networks has been carried out recently in these basins, the aim of this paper is to map the existing coastal sea level monitoring infrastructures and the respective data availability. The survey encompasses description of major monitoring networks in the Mediterranean and Black seas and their characteristics, including the type of sea level sensors, measuring resolutions, data availability and existence of ancillary measurements, altogether collecting information about 236 presently operational tide gauge stations. The availability of the Mediterranean and Black seas sea level data in the global and European sea level repositories has been also screened and classified following their sampling interval and level of quality-check, pointing to the necessity of harmonization of the data available with different metadata and series at different repositories. Finally, an assessment of the networks’ capabilities for their usage in different sea level applications has been done, with recommendations that might mitigate the bottlenecks and assure further development of the networks in a coordinated way, being that more necessary in the era of the human-induced climate changes and the sea level rise.

Begoña Pérez Gómez et al.

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on os-2021-125', Anonymous Referee #1, 15 Feb 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Begoña Pérez Gómez, 25 Apr 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on os-2021-125', Anonymous Referee #2, 03 Mar 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Begoña Pérez Gómez, 25 Apr 2022

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on os-2021-125', Anonymous Referee #1, 15 Feb 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Begoña Pérez Gómez, 25 Apr 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on os-2021-125', Anonymous Referee #2, 03 Mar 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Begoña Pérez Gómez, 25 Apr 2022

Begoña Pérez Gómez et al.

Begoña Pérez Gómez et al.

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Short summary
A survey was conducted in 2021 to tide gauge operators and sea level scientists in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. As a result, a detailed mapping of active tide gauges in this region, including relevant metadata and national contacts, is provided. The work is complemented with an assessment of tide gauge data availability in international programs, and a review of the fit-for-purpose status of the network for those coasts more threatened by sea level related hazards.