Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2021-119
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2021-119

  14 Dec 2021

14 Dec 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal OS.

Coastal HF radars in the Mediterranean: status of operations and a framework for future development

Pablo Lorente1,2, Eva Aguiar3, Michele Bendoni4, Maristella Berta5, Carlo Brandini4,6, Alejandro Cáceres-Euse7, Fulvio Capodici8, Daniella Cianelli9,10, Giuseppe Ciraolo8, Lorenzo Corgnati5, Vlado Dadic11, Bartolomeo Doronzo4,6, Aldo Drago12, Dylan Dumas7, Pierpaolo Falco13, Maria Fattorini4,6, Adam Gauci12, Roberto Gómez14, Annalisa Griffa5, Charles-Antoine Guérin7, Ismael Hernández-Carrasco15, Jaime Hernández-Lasheras3, Matjaz Licer16,17, Marcelo Magaldi5, Carlo Mantovani5, Hrvoje Mihanovic11, Anne Molcard7, Baptiste Mourre3, Alejandro Orfila15, Adèle Révelard3, Emma Reyes3, Jorge Sanchez18, Simona Saviano9,10, Roberta Sciascia5, Stefano Taddei4, Joaquin Tintoré3,15, Yaron Toledo19, Laura Ursella20, Marco Uttieri9,10, Ivica Vilibic11,21, Enrico Zambianchi10,22, and Vanessa Cardín20 Pablo Lorente et al.
  • 1Puertos del Estado, Madrid, 28042, Spain
  • 2NOLOGIN CONSULTING SL, Zaragoza, 50018, Spain
  • 3SOCIB -Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System-, Palma, 07122, Spain
  • 4Consorzio LaMMA, Livorno, 57126, Italy
  • 5Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR), Lerici, 19032, Italy
  • 6Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per la Bioeconomia (IBE), Sesto Fiorentino, 50019, Italy
  • 7Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography, Université de Toulon, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IRD, MIO, Toulon, 83041, France
  • 8Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, 90218, Italy
  • 9Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, 80121, Italy
  • 10Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze del Mare (CoNISMa), Rome, 00196, Italy
  • 11Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, 21000, Croatia
  • 12Physical Oceanography Research Group, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta
  • 13Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, DISVA, Ancona, 60121, Italy
  • 14Helzel Messtechnik GmbH, Kaltenkirchen, 24568, Germany
  • 15Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies – IMEDEA- (CSIC-UIB), Esporles, 07190, Spain
  • 16National Institute of Biology, Marine Biology Station, Piran, 6330, Slovenia
  • 17Slovenian Environment Agency, Ljubljana, SI-1000, Slovenia
  • 18Qualitas Instruments S.A., Madrid, 28043, Spain
  • 19School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 6905904, Israel
  • 20Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, OGS, Sgonico TS, 34010, Italy
  • 21Ruđer Bošković Institute, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb, 10000, Croatia
  • 22Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie (DiST), Parthenope University of Naples, Naples, 80143, Italy

Abstract. Due to the semi-enclosed nature of the Mediterranean Sea, natural disasters and anthropogenic activities impose stronger pressures on its coastal ecosystems than in any other sea of the world. With the aim of responding adequately to science priorities and societal challenges, littoral waters must be effectively monitored with High-Frequency radar (HFR) systems. This land-based remote sensing technology can provide, in near real-time, fine-resolution maps of the surface circulation over broad coastal areas, along with reliable directional wave and wind information. The main goal of this work is to showcase the current status of the Mediterranean HFR network and the future roadmap for orchestrated actions. Ongoing collaborative efforts and recent progress of this regional alliance are not only described but also connected with other European initiatives and global frameworks, highlighting the advantages of this cost-effective instrument for the multi-parameter monitoring of the sea state. Coordinated endeavours between HFR operators from different multi-disciplinary institutions are mandatory to reach a mature stage at both national and regional levels, striving to: i) harmonize deployment and maintenance practices; ii) standardize data, metadata and quality control procedures; iii) centralize data management, visualization and access platforms; iv) develop practical applications of societal benefit, that can be used for strategic planning and informed decision-making in the Mediterranean marine environment. Such fit-for-purpose applications can serve for search and rescue operations, safe vessel navigation, tracking of marine pollutants, the monitoring of extreme events or the investigation of transport processes and the connectivity between offshore waters and coastal ecosystems. Finally, future prospects within the Mediterranean framework are discussed along with a wealth of socio-economic, technical and scientific challenges to be faced during the implementation of this integrated HFR regional network.

Pablo Lorente et al.

Status: open (until 08 Feb 2022)

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Pablo Lorente et al.

Pablo Lorente et al.

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Short summary
High-Frequency radar (HFR) is a land-based remote sensing technology that can provide maps of the surface circulation over broad coastal areas, along with wave and wind information. The main goal of this work is to showcase the current status of the Mediterranean HFR network and present and future applications of this sensor for societal benefit such as search and rescue operations, safe vessel navigation, tracking of marine pollutants, the monitoring of extreme events.