Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2021-115
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2021-115

  14 Dec 2021

14 Dec 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal OS.

Coastal HF radars in the Mediterranean: Applications in support of science priorities and societal needs

Emma Reyes1, Eva Aguiar1, Michele Bendoni2, Maristella Berta3, Carlo Brandini2,4, Alejandro Cáceres-Euse5, Fulvio Capodici6, Vanessa Cardin7, Daniela Cianelli8,9, Giuseppe Ciraolo6, Lorenzo Corgnati3, Vlado Dadić10, Bartolomeo Doronzo2,4, Aldo Drago11, Dylan Dumas5, Pierpaolo Falco9,12, Maria Fattorini2,4, Maria J. Fernández13, Adam Gauci11, Roberto Gómez14, Annalisa Griffa3, Charles-Antoine Guérin5, Ismael Hernández-Carrasco15, Jaime Hernández-Lasheras1, Matjaž Ličer16,17, Pablo Lorente18,19, Marcello Magaldi3, Carlo Mantovani3, Hrvoje Mihanović10, Anne Molcard5, Baptiste Mourre1, Adèle Révelard1, Catalina Reyes-Suárez7, Simona Saviano8,9, Roberta Sciascia3, Stefano Taddei2, Joaquín Tintoré1,15, Yaron Toledo20, Marco Uttieri8,9, Ivica Vilibić10,21, Enrico Zambianchi9,22, and Alejandro Orfila15 Emma Reyes et al.
  • 1SOCIB -Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System-, Palma, 07122, Spain
  • 2Consorzio LaMMA, Livorno, 57126, Italy
  • 3Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR), Lerici, 19032, Italy
  • 4Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per la Bioeconomia (IBE), Sesto Fiorentino, 50019, Italy
  • 5Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography, Université de Toulon, Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, MIO, Toulon, CS 60584 83041, France
  • 6Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, 90218, Italy
  • 7Instituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Sgonico, 34010, Italy
  • 8Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, 80121, Italy
  • 9Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze del Mare (CoNISMa), Rome, 00196 , Italy
  • 10Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, 21000, Croatia
  • 11Physical Oceanography Research Group, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta
  • 12Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, DISVA, Ancona, 60121, Italy
  • 13Qualitas Instruments Lda., Caparica, 2825-182, Portugal
  • 14Helzel Messtechnik GmbH, Kaltenkirchen, 24568, Germany
  • 15Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies – IMEDEA- (CSIC-UIB), Esporles, 07190, Spain
  • 16National Institute of Biology, Marine Biology Station, Piran, 6330, Slovenia
  • 17Slovenian Environment Agency, Ljubljana, SI-1000, Slovenia
  • 18NOLOGIN CONSULTING SL, Zaragoza, 50018, Spain
  • 19Puertos del Estado, Madrid, 28042, Spain
  • 20School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 6905904, Israel
  • 21Ruđer Bošković Institute, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb, 10000, Croatia
  • 22Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie (DiST), Parthenope University of Naples, Naples, 80133, Italy

Abstract. The Mediterranean Sea is a prominent climate change hot spot, being their socio-economically vital coastal areas the most vulnerable targets for maritime safety, diverse met-ocean hazards and marine pollution. Providing an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution at wide coastal areas, High-frequency radars (HFRs) have been steadily gaining recognition as an effective land-based remote sensing technology for a continuous monitoring of the surface circulation, increasingly waves and occasionally winds. HFR measurements have boosted the thorough scientific knowledge of coastal processes, also fostering a broad range of applications, which has promoted their integration in the Coastal Ocean Observing Systems worldwide, with more than half of the European sites located in the Mediterranean coastal areas. In this work, we present a review of existing HFR data multidisciplinary science-based applications in the Mediterranean Sea, primarily focused on meeting end-users and science-driven requirements, addressing regional challenges in three main topics: i) maritime safety; ii) extreme hazards; iii) environmental transport process. Additionally, the HFR observing and monitoring regional capabilities in the Mediterranean region required to underpin the underlying science and the further development of applications are also analyzed. The outcome of this assessment has allowed us to finally provide a set of recommendations for the future improvement prospects to maximize the contribution in extending the science-based HFR products into societal relevant downstream services to support the blue growth in the Mediterranean coastal areas, helping to meet the UN’s Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development and the EU’s Green Deal goals.

Emma Reyes et al.

Status: open (until 23 Feb 2022)

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Emma Reyes et al.

Emma Reyes et al.

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Short summary
This work reviews the existing advanced and emerging scientific and societal applications using HFR data, developed to address the major challenges identified in the Mediterranean coastal waters, organized around three main topics: maritime safety; extreme hazards and environmental transport processes. It also includes the discussion and a preliminary assessment of the capabilities of the existing HFR applications, finally providing a set of recommendations towards setting out future prospects.