Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2021-1
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2021-1

  29 Mar 2021

29 Mar 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal OS.

Progress in understanding of Indian Ocean circulation, variability, air-sea exchange and impacts on biogeochemistry

Helen E. Phillips1,2, Amit Tandon3, Ryo Furue4, Raleigh Hood5, Caroline Ummenhofer6,7, Jessica Benthuysen8, Viviane Menezes6, Shijian Hu9, Ben Webber10, Alejandra Sanchez-Franks11, Deepak Cherian12, Emily Shroyer13, Ming Feng14,15, Hemantha Wijeskera16, Abhishek Chatterjee17, Lisan Yu6, Juliet Hermes18, Raghu Murtugudde19, Tomoki Tozuka20,4, Danielle Su21, Arvind Singh22, Luca Centurioni23, Satya Prakash17, and Jerry Wiggert24 Helen E. Phillips et al.
  • 1Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, 7005, Australia
  • 2Australian Antarctic Program Partnership, University of Tasmania, Hobart, 7005, Australia
  • 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 02747, USA
  • 4APL/JAMSTEC, Yokohama, Japan
  • 5University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Horn Point Laboratory, Cambridge, 21613, USA
  • 6Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, 02543, USA
  • 7ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
  • 8Australian Institute of Marine Science, Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre, Crawley, Australia
  • 9Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China
  • 10School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
  • 11National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
  • 12National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, USA
  • 13College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 97331, USA
  • 14CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Indian Ocean Marine Research Centre, Crawley, Australia
  • 15Centre for Southern Hemisphere Oceans Research, Hobart, Australia
  • 16U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, 20032, USA
  • 17Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Hyderabad, India
  • 18South African Environmental Observation Network, Cape Town, South Africa
  • 19Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA
  • 20Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • 21Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7159 LOCEAN-IPSL, Paris, France
  • 22Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India
  • 23Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, 92093, USA
  • 24University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, 399406, USA

Abstract. Over the past decade, our understanding of the Indian Ocean has advanced through concerted efforts toward measuring the ocean circulation and its water properties, detecting changes in water masses, and linking physical processes to ecologically important variables. New circulation pathways and mechanisms have been discovered, which control atmospheric and oceanic mean state and variability. This review brings together new understanding of the ocean-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean since the last comprehensive review, describing the Indian Ocean circulation patterns, air-sea interactions and climate variability. The second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2) and related efforts have motivated the application of new technologies to deliver higher-resolution observations and models of Indian Ocean processes. As a result we are discovering the importance of small scale processes in setting the large-scale gradients and circulation, interactions between physical and biogeochemical processes, interactions between boundary currents and the interior, and between the surface and the deep ocean. In the last decade we have seen rapid warming of the Indian Ocean overlaid with extremes in the form of marine heatwaves. These events have motivated studies that have delivered new insight into the variability in ocean heat content and exchanges in the Indian Ocean, and climate variability on interannual to decadal timescales.This synthesis paper reviews the advances in these areas in the last decade.

Helen E. Phillips et al.

Status: open (until 24 May 2021)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse

Helen E. Phillips et al.

Helen E. Phillips et al.

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Short summary
We review new understanding of the ocean-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean, describing Indian Ocean circulation patterns, air-sea interactions and climate variability. New higher-resolution observations, and finer models of Indian Ocean processes affirm the importance of small-scale processes in setting large-scale gradients and circulation. Interactions between physics and biogeochemistry, boundary currents and the interior, the surface and deep layers are becoming clear.