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Ocean Science An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2020-30
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2020-30
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 06 May 2020

Submitted as: research article | 06 May 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal OS.

Effects of current on wind waves in strong winds

Naohisa Takagaki1, Naoya Suzuki2, Yuliya Troitskaya3, Chiaki Tanaka2, Alexander Kandaurov3, and Maxim Vdovin3 Naohisa Takagaki et al.
  • 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hyogo, Shosha 2167, Himeji Hyogo, 671-2280 Japan
  • 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kindai University, 3-4-1, Kowakae Higashiosaka Osaka, 577-8502 Japan
  • 3Department of Geophysical Research, Institute of Applied Physics, the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul'yanov Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603-950, Russia

Abstract. It is important to investigate the effects of current on wind waves, called the Doppler shift, both at normal and extreme high wind speeds. Three different types of wind-wave tanks along with a fan and pump are used to demonstrate wind waves and currents in laboratories at Kyoto University, Japan, Kindai University, Japan, and the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia. Profiles of the wind and current velocities and the water-level fluctuation are measured. The wave frequency, wavelength, and phase velocity of the significant waves are calculated, and the water velocities at the water surface and in the bulk of the water are also estimated by the current distribution. The results show that 27 different types of currents can be generated at wind speeds ranging from 7 to 67 m s-1. At normal wind speeds under 30 m s-1, wave frequency, wavelength, and phase velocity depend on wind speed and fetch. The effect of the Doppler shift is confirmed at normal wind speeds, i.e., the significant waves are accelerated by the surface current. The phase velocity can be represented as the sum of the surface current and artificial phase velocity, which is estimated by the dispersion relation of the deep-water waves. At extreme high wind speeds, over 30 m s-1, a similar Doppler shift is observed as under the conditions of normal wind speeds. This suggests that the Doppler shift is an adequate model for representing the acceleration of wind waves by current, not only for the wind waves at normal wind speeds but also for those with intensive breaking at extreme high wind speeds. A weakly nonlinear model of surface waves at a shear flow is developed. It is shown that it describes well the dispersion properties of not only small-amplitude waves but also strongly nonlinear and even breaking waves, typical for extreme wind conditions (over 30 m s-1).

Naohisa Takagaki et al.

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Naohisa Takagaki et al.

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Latest update: 06 Jul 2020
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Short summary
Currents are high-speed continuous ocean flows. In general, currents accelerate the surface waves. However, studies were performed at normal wind speeds only, and few studies at extreme high wind speeds. Thus, we investigate the effects of current on surface waves at extreme high wind speeds. We used three wind-wave tanks to demonstrate surface waves and currents. As a result, at extreme high wind speeds, a similar acceleration effect is observed as under the conditions of normal wind speeds.
Currents are high-speed continuous ocean flows. In general, currents accelerate the surface...
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